生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (5): 541-549.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020057

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“野生动物”的概念框架和术语定义

曾岩1,2,平晓鸽1,2,魏辅文1,2,3,*()   

  1. 1 中华人民共和国濒危物种科学委员会, 北京 100101
    2 中国科学院动物研究所, 北京 100101
    3 中国科学院动物进化与遗传交叉卓越中心, 昆明 650223
  • 收稿日期:2020-02-25 接受日期:2020-04-27 出版日期:2020-05-20 发布日期:2020-04-27
  • 通讯作者: 魏辅文
  • 基金资助:
    中国科学院战略性先导科技专项(B类)(XDB31000000);科技部重点研发专项(2016YFC0503200)

A conceptual framework and definitions for the term “wild animal”

Yan Zeng1,2,Xiaoge Ping1,2,Fuwen Wei1,2,3,*()   

  1. 1 Endangered Species Scientific Commission, P. R. C., Beijing 100101
    2 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
    3 Center for Excellence in Animal Evolution and Genetics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650223
  • Received:2020-02-25 Accepted:2020-04-27 Online:2020-05-20 Published:2020-04-27
  • Contact: Fuwen Wei

摘要:

“野生动物”(wild animal)一词不止在我国, 在全球的英语使用者中也有不同的含义。通过梳理相关研究、国内法和国际法背景下的定义和适用范围, 结合人类对动物繁殖和生活条件的控制情况, 本文提出了“野生动物”的二维概念框架, 梳理了动物从“野生”到“驯化”的12个连续状态。以下状态即未经中长期人工选择的动物类群应被视为野生动物: (1)其在荒野自然或人工环境(如城市或乡村)中自由生存繁殖, 无论是否存在人工投喂、经救护或辅助生殖后被放归的个体; (2)被捕捉圈养在人工环境中生活, 或源自野外但在圈养条件下出生的个体; (3)直系血亲(《濒危野生动植物种国际贸易公约》解释为世系前四代)仍有野外来源的人工繁育后代; (4)放生、逃逸或引入到自然环境中的人工繁育个体。在野生动物物种保护的目标和语境之下, 经过长期人工选择的驯化动物, 无论其是否在人类控制下生活, 如家养猫狗、家禽家畜或模式实验动物, 以及流浪猫狗、放生禽畜和野化家养动物等都不是“野生动物”。但对于一些经过一定程度的人工选择, 所处人类控制情况和对野外种群的影响各异(如经过多代人工繁育的驯养动物、因人类活动导致的外来动物等), 其是否需被作为野生动物管理, 则需要根据生态安全、物种管理、立法目标等特别设定监管范围。《中华人民共和国野生动物保护法》的保护对象可以考虑为: 受到人类威胁濒临灭绝的, 或者具有重要生态作用的野生动物物种, 其状态可不限于是在野外还是人工控制条件下。其他动物的管理, 可根据遗传资源保护、疫病防控、动物福利和生态安全等需要, 另外设立《动物福利法》《生物安全法》等, 并和已有的法律法规如《动物防疫法》《渔业法》等做好衔接。本文还就《野生动物保护法》可能采用的“野生动物”定义提出建议。

关键词: 野生动物, 二维概念框架, 野生动物保护法

Abstract:

The term “wild animal” has different meanings not only in Chinese but in many languages all over the world. Here, we identify uses of the term “wild animal” through examining interpretations and applications in local, national, and international laws and language used in human controlled animal reproduction. We put forward a two-dimensional conceptual framework of “wild animals” that distinguishes 12 continuous states of animals from “wild” to “domesticated”. Animal groups that have not been artificially selected in the medium- and long-term were considered wild animals. Domesticated animals, whether or not they live under human control, such as domestic cats, dogs, poultry, livestock, and model animals or stray or feral were not considered “wild animals”. However, the management of some categories, such as tamed animals of wild species or exotic/invasive animals needs to base on ecological safety, species conservation, and legislative objectives. The Law of the People’s Republic of China on the Protection of Wildlife shall apply to endangered animal species threatened by humans, whether they were found in the wild or under human control condition. For the management of other states of “wild animals”, existing laws should be strictly implemented, and new laws should be enacted with genetic resources, zoonotic diseases, animal welfare, and ecological safety in mind. We additionally make specific recommendations for the definition of “wild animal” for use under the Law on the Protection of Wildlife.

Key words: wild animal, two-dimensional conceptual framework, wildlife protection law