生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (6): 695-706.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020019

• 研究报告:动物多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

西双版纳国家级自然保护区蚂蚁-树互作网络空间变异

王剑1,2,董乙乂2,马丽滨3,潘勃2,马方舟4,丁晖4,胡亚萍4,彭艳琼2,吴孝兵1,王波2,*()   

  1. 1 安徽师范大学生命科学学院, 安徽芜湖 241000
    2 中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园, 云南勐腊 666303
    3 陕西师范大学生命科学学院, 西安 710119
    4 环境保护部南京环境科学研究所, 南京 210042
  • 收稿日期:2020-01-15 接受日期:2020-04-17 出版日期:2020-06-20 发布日期:2020-05-18
  • 通讯作者: 王波
  • 基金资助:
    生态环境部南京环境科学研究所“重点外来入侵物种防控的调查与评估”项目(9-4-13-35-2);云南省应用基础研究面上项目(2016FB050);国家自然科学基金(31570418);国家自然科学基金(31770463)

Spatial variation in ant-tree network organization in the Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve

Jian Wang1,2,Yiyi Dong2,Libin Ma3,Bo Pan2,Fangzhou Ma4,Hui Ding4,Yaping Hu4,Yanqiong Peng2,Xiaobing Wu1,Bo Wang2,*()   

  1. 1 College of Life Sciences, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu, Anhui 241000
    2 Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Mengla, Yunnan 666303
    3 College of Life Sciences, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi’an 710119
    4 Research Center for Nature Conservation and Biodiversity of Nanjing Institute of Environmental Sciences, Ministry of Ecology and Environment, Nanjing 210042
  • Received:2020-01-15 Accepted:2020-04-17 Online:2020-06-20 Published:2020-05-18
  • Contact: Bo Wang

摘要:

网络分析(network analysis)可以同时分析群落中的物种多样性和种间关系, 为了解生态群落的稳定性机制提供了新的分析思路和方法。本研究从西双版纳国家级自然保护区的纳板河、勐仑和勐腊(补蚌)三个地点采集了树栖性蚂蚁及树木的种类和数量数据, 对蚂蚁-树组成的二分网络进行了分析, 探讨了3个采样点物种的多样性、网络指标以及群落指标之间的关系。我们采用零模型的方法比较了3个样点的标准化网络参数差异。结果表明: 蚂蚁和树木的物种数以及树的异质性指数(Shannon-Wiener多样性指数、Simpson多样性指数)都呈现出勐仑 > 纳板河 > 补蚌的趋势。树木-蚂蚁的灭绝曲线系数大小关系同样为勐仑 > 纳板河 > 补蚌, 灭绝曲线与树的物种数及异质性指数大小趋势一致, 而与蚂蚁的异质性指数并不吻合。根据Z值的绝对值来看, 网络参数(加权嵌套性、平均连接数、特化水平、模块性、连接度)与群落参数(灭绝曲线系数、生态位重叠)的大小趋势相同, 表现出勐仑 > 纳板河 > 补蚌的趋势。综上所述, 蚂蚁-树互作网络的稳定性(灭绝曲线系数)主要由树的数量和异质性指数决定。网络的加权嵌套性和网络中节点的平均连接数也能促进群落的稳定性。而在一个特化的(数值越大表示专性互作越多)和模块化(具有较多密切互作的节点单元)的网络中, 当低营养级物种灭绝时高营养级物种数量将迅速减少。

关键词: 蚂蚁-树二分网络, 嵌套性, 灭绝曲线, 生态位重叠, 网络特化水平

Abstract:

Network analysis helps reveal the details of community organization by holistically assessing species diversity and the relationships contained therein. In this study, we collected arboreal ants from their host trees at three sites (Nabanhe, Menglun, and Bubeng) in the Xishuangbanna National Nature Reserve. Following computation of species diversity, network metrics, and community metrics, we compared the ant-tree bipartite networks between the three sample sites. Network metrics were evaluated using Z values standardized according to two different null models. Tree species composition differed across the three experimental sites, and the ant communities were correspondingly diverse. Ant and tree species number and the tree heterogeneity index (Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Simpson diversity index) were highest in Menglun, and lowest in Bubeng. Extinction slopes showed the same trends as the indices for ant and tree species number and tree heterogeneity, but did not display the same pattern as ant species heterogeneity. Evaluated parameters included: weighted nestedness metrics (WNODF), links per species, specialization, modularity, connectance, extinction slope exponent, and niche overlap. The absolute Z values of these parameters were highest in Menglun and lowest in Bubeng. In conclusion, tree species number and heterogeneity determine the ant-tree network stability, which is measured by extinction slope. WNODF and links per species are positively correlated with community stability. In specialized and modular networks, species populating higher trophic levels experience extinction events in direct correlation with those in lower trophic levels.

Key words: ant-tree bipartite network, nestedness, extinction slope, niche overlap, specialization