生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (3): 367-375.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019414

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分子标记在濒危物种保护中的应用

李媛媛1,4,*(),刘超男1,王嵘1,罗水兴2,农寿千3,王静雯1,陈小勇1   

  1. 1. 华东师范大学生态与环境科学学院, 浙江天童森林生态系统国家野外科学观测研究站, 上海 200241
    2. 中国林业科学研究院热带林业研究所试验站, 海南乐东 572542
    3. 海南省林业科学研究所, 海口 571100
    4. 华东师范大学崇明生态研究院, 上海 200062
  • 收稿日期:2019-12-30 接受日期:2020-02-20 出版日期:2020-03-20 发布日期:2020-03-08
  • 通讯作者: 李媛媛
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划(2016YFC0503100);“极小种群野生植物种质资源保护技术研究与示范”课题(2016YFC0503102);国家自然科学基金(31670540)

Applications of molecular markers in conserving endangered species

Yuanyuan Li1,4,*(),Chaonan Liu1,Rong Wang1,Shuixing Luo2,Shouqian Nong3,Jingwen Wang1,Xiaoyong Chen1   

  1. 1 Zhejiang Tiantong Forest Ecosystem National Observation and Research Station, School of Ecological and Environmental Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241
    2 Experimental Station of Research Institute of Tropical Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Ledong, Hainan 572542
    3 Hainan Forestry Institute, Haikou 571100
    4 Institute of Eco-Chongming, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062
  • Received:2019-12-30 Accepted:2020-02-20 Online:2020-03-20 Published:2020-03-08
  • Contact: Yuanyuan Li

摘要:

分子标记可揭示种群遗传和进化信息, 为制定濒危物种保护措施、指导恢复实践提供重要依据。本文主要介绍了分子标记在濒危物种保护过程不同环节中的应用, 包括: (1)正确识别保护单元, 如排除隐存种和杂交种的影响; (2)确定优先保护单元, 包括优先保护区域、优先保护物种、优先保护种群等; (3)指导迁地保护; (4)对保护工作的动态监测和评估。文章最后探讨了分子标记应用于保护的发展方向, 如开展长期的种群遗传组成监测、切实应用于保护管理实践、将基因组学等遗传信息用于全球变化背景下保护策略的制定等, 期望为分子标记技术在生物多样性保护的研究和实践中提供参考。

关键词: 分子标记, 隐存种, 杂交, 进化显著单元, 管理单元, 迁地保护, 保护基因组学

Abstract:

Molecular markers have been widely applied in the conservation of endangered species for revealing their population genetic variation and evolutionary history, providing essential information for making conservation strategies and conducting restoration practices. Here, we introduced the applications of molecular markers at different stages of conservation efforts: (1) Molecular markers can be used to elevate the precision of identifying conservation units such as excluding the influence of cryptic species and hybridization. (2) Phylogenetic relationships are useful for distinguishing conservation priorities for biodiversity hotspots and discerning species and populations. (3) Molecular markers can contribute to instruct the strategies in ex situ conservation programs. (4) Dynamic monitoring and assessment of conservation activities can be achieved with molecular markers. Finally, we discussed the prospects of applying molecular markers for improving conservation strategies considering global change, including long-term monitoring of genetic dynamics, the use of conservation genetics in conservation management, and the development conservation genomics.

Key words: molecular markers, cryptic species, hybridization, evolutionary significant unit, management unit, ex situ conservation, conservation genomics