生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (6): 668-677.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019392

• 研究报告:植物多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国佛教寺庙植物多样性和佛教树种替代

王新阳,靳程,黄力,周礼华,郑明铭,钱深华,杨永川()   

  1. 重庆大学三峡库区生态环境教育部重点实验室, 重庆 400045
  • 收稿日期:2019-12-07 接受日期:2020-02-14 出版日期:2020-06-20 发布日期:2020-08-19
  • 通讯作者: 杨永川
  • 基金资助:
    重庆市技术创新与应用示范专项重点研发项目(cstc2018jszx-zdyfxmX0007);重庆市研究生科研创新项目(CYS18028)

Plant diversity and species replacement in Chinese Buddhist temples

Xinyang Wang,Cheng Jin,Li Huang,Lihua Zhou,Mingming Zheng,Shenhua Qian,Yongchuan Yang()   

  1. Key Laboratory of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region’s Eco-Environment, Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045
  • Received:2019-12-07 Accepted:2020-02-14 Online:2020-06-20 Published:2020-08-19
  • Contact: Yongchuan Yang

摘要:

佛教是我国的主要宗教之一, 佛教寺庙作为佛教文化的物质载体, 对区域生物多样性的保护具有重要意义。本研究收集了中国191座寺庙的树种名录, 分析了不同地区寺庙的树种组成、分布格局及影响因素, 以明确寺庙在生物多样性保护中的作用。结果表明: (1)全国191座寺庙共收集到树种1,059种, 隶属116科410属, 大多数树种(773种)仅出现在1-2座寺庙中; (2)寺庙树种中含有大量乡土植物, 并且保存了丰富的受威胁树种(94种), 具有较高的生物多样性保护价值; (3)不同气候带的佛教树种组成差异较大, 主要受气候因子限制; (4)佛教树种具有清晰的树种替代现象, 由南向北原始佛教树种逐渐由形态相似的本土物种(替代佛教树种)替代。以上结果表明中国寺庙中保存了非常丰富的植物资源, 有效地保护和利用寺庙植物资源对维持区域生物多样性和提升城市绿化水平具有积极作用。

关键词: 寺庙园林, 佛教树种, 佛教树种替代, 生物多样性保护

Abstract:

Buddhism is one of the main religions in China. As the material carrier of Buddhist culture, Buddhist temples play an important role in preserving regional biodiversity. In this study, we cataloged the tree species in 191 temples across China. Then, we analyzed the species composition, geographical distribution pattern, and the impact factors of Buddhist tree species distribution in different regions to clarify the role of temples in biodiversity conservation. The results showed that: (1) From across 191 temples, we observed a total of 1,059 tree species, belonging to 116 families and 410 genera with most species (n = 773) occurred in only one or two temples. (2) Temple gardens were rich in native and threatened tree species (n = 94), and thus, are of high biodiversity conservation value. (3) The tree species composition of Buddhist temples in different climatic zones was quite different. (4) Tree species across temples had a distinct replacement phenomenon where original Buddhist tree species were gradually replaced by native species similar to the native flora, from south to north. The above results suggest that Chinese temples have very rich plant resource and that their effective protection may play a positive role in maintaining regional biodiversity and improving urban greening.

Key words: temple gardens, Buddhist tree species, Buddhist tree species replacement, biodiversity conservation