生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (6): 749-758.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019344

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全球变化背景下内蒙古草原土壤微生物多样性维持机制研究进展

李婷婷,张西美()   

  1. 中国农业科学院农业环境与可持续发展研究所, 北京 100081
  • 收稿日期:2019-11-04 接受日期:2020-03-03 出版日期:2020-06-20 发布日期:2020-05-30
  • 通讯作者: 张西美
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划(2016YFC0500702);水体污染控制与治理科技重大专项(2017ZX07101003)

Research progress of the maintaining mechanisms of soil microbial diversity in Inner Mongolia grasslands under global change

Tingting Li,Ximei Zhang()   

  1. Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081
  • Received:2019-11-04 Accepted:2020-03-03 Online:2020-06-20 Published:2020-05-30
  • Contact: Ximei Zhang

摘要:

全球变化对人类环境的影响是近几十年世界广泛关注的热点之一。内蒙古草原不仅是我国重要的牲畜和饲料生产基地, 而且有着不可替代的生态系统功能。土壤微生物是地球上多样性最高的生物类群, 在驱动碳氮循环等多种生态系统过程中发挥着至关重要的作用。由于研究技术的限制和群落结构复杂等原因, 土壤微生物生态学研究还处于描述性阶段, 理论研究还很缺乏。鉴于此, 利用分子生物学技术尤其是新一代测序技术, 从理论层面上系统地研究全球变化背景下我国北方草地微生物多样性的维持机制具有重要意义。本文在比较各种环境变化对土壤微生物群落的相对影响的基础上, 分析全球变化对微生物多样性影响的物理化学和生态学机制, 并对未来内蒙古草原微生物多样性的重点研究领域进行了展望, 包括: (1)加强全球变化多因素综合研究; (2)加强微生物多样性维持的生态学机制的研究; (3)加强地上与地下多样性关联机制的研究; (4)加强全球大尺度多生态系统的整合研究。

关键词: 土壤微生物, 微生物多样性, 全球变化, 内蒙古草原, 多样性维持机制

Abstract:

The effects of global climate change are a worldwide concern. Inner Mongolian grasslands which are sensitive to global climate change are not only the important foundation of livestock and forage products, but also have irreplaceable ecosystem functions. Soil microorganisms comprise a large proportion of Earth’s biodiversity and play vital roles in various ecosystem process including carbon and nitrogen cycles. Due to technological limitation and complicated community structure, soil microbial ecology research is currently at the descriptive stage and its theoretical research is still inadequate. Hence it is crucial to use molecular technologies, in particular the next-generation sequencing technology, to study the maintaining mechanism of soil microorganisms systematically in the Inner Mongolia grassland of China. Here we first review recent studies that compared the relative effects of different climate change factors on soil microbial community in Inner Mongolia grasslands. We then analyze the physiochemical and ecological mechanisms for the effects of different environmental changes on soil microorganisms. Finally, we highlight open questions for future research on soil microbial diversity under global change in Inner Mongolia grasslands. We recommend that future researches focus on (1) effects of multiple global change factors on soil microbial diversity; (2) ecological mechanisms that maintain soil microbial diversity; (3) relationships between aboveground and belowground biodiversity; and (4) integration research of multiple ecosystems globally.

Key words: soil microorganism, microbial diversity, global change, Inner Mongolia grassland, diversity maintaining mechanism