生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (2): 135-143.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019233

• 研究报告:植物多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

华中地区国家级自然保护区对药用维管植物的就地保护现状

池秀莲1,郭婷2,王庆刚2,景志贤1,张小波1,李晓琳1,孙楷1,王铁霖1,杨光1,*()   

  1. 1 中国中医科学院中药资源中心, 道地药材国家重点实验室培育基地, 北京 100700
    2 中国农业大学资源与环境学院生态科学与工程系, 生物多样性与有机农业北京市重点实验室, 北京 100193
  • 收稿日期:2019-07-23 接受日期:2019-10-23 出版日期:2020-02-20 发布日期:2020-03-27
  • 通讯作者: 杨光
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金青年基金(81603236);生物多样性保护重大工程专项(19-02)

Evaluation of in situ conservation effectiveness on medicinal vascular plants in national nature reserves in central China

Chi Xiulian1,Guo Ting2,Wang Qinggang2,Jing Zhixian1,Zhang Xiaobo1,Li Xiaolin1,Sun Kai1,Wang Tielin1,Yang Guang1,*()   

  1. 1 National Resource Center for Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Dao-di Herbs, Beijing 100700
    2 Department of Ecology and Ecological Engineering, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, and Key Laboratory of Biodiversity and Organic Farming of Beijing City, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193
  • Received:2019-07-23 Accepted:2019-10-23 Online:2020-02-20 Published:2020-03-27
  • Contact: Yang Guang

摘要:

药用植物野生资源的保护正受到学界乃至全社会的广泛关注。本研究通过收集华中地区(包括湖南、湖北和河南三省)的49个国家级自然保护区的科学考察报告、多样性研究报告以及其他相关文献资料, 结合第四次全国中药资源普查数据, 建立了华中地区国家级自然保护区内药用维管植物数据库, 并评估了这些保护区对华中地区药用维管植物的保护成效。研究发现: 华中地区国家级自然保护区内分布有6,071种药用维管植物, 就地保护比例为81.93%; 其中特有、受威胁和常用药用植物物种数分别为1,479种、224种和448种, 三者受保护比例分别为87.98%、78.87%和91.80%。有32.16%的药用维管植物(2,383种, 特有、受威胁和常用药用植物物种数分别为644种、119种和69种)仅分布于1-5个自然保护区中。森林生态系统类型的自然保护区对不同类群药用植物的保护效果均最好。神农架、金童山、莽山、星斗山及湖南舜皇山5个保护区是所有、特有以及受威胁药用植物物种多样性的热点地区, 是华中地区药用植物保护的重要区域。总体上, 华中地区现有国家级自然保护区较好地覆盖了该地区的药用维管植物, 但药用维管植物的就地保护仍不容懈怠。建议加强对该区域保护空缺物种的野外动态监测和保护。

关键词: 中国特有药用植物, 受威胁药用植物, 常用药用植物, 自然保护区, 保护贡献率, 保护空缺

Abstract:

The conservation of wild resources including medicinal plants has drawn widespread attention from the academic community and society at large. This study integrates the results of scientific investigation reports of 49 national nature reserves (NNR), other related literature, and “the Fourth National Census of Traditional Chinese Medicine Resources” in central China (including Hunan, Hubei, and Henan provinces) to establish a catalogue of medicinal vascular plants (MVP). Based on this dataset and the catalogue of plant species in central China, this study evaluated the effectiveness of NNR networks on conservation of MVPs in central China. We show that 6,071 MVP species, including 1,479 endemic MVP species, 224 threatened MVP species, and 448 frequently used MVP species were covered by at least one NNR in central China. Their in situ conseravation rates were 81.93%, 87.98%, 78.87% and 91.80%, respectively. However, about 32.16% (2,383 MVP species, including 644 endemic MVP species, 119 threatened MVP species and 69 frequently used MVP species) of all the conserved MVPs were only found in 1-5 NNRs. The NNR of the forest ecosystem type performed the best protection efficiency, covering a total of 5,875 MVP species, 1,444 endemic MVP species, 211 threatened MVP species and 442 frequently used MVP species. National nature reserves of Shennongjia, Jintongshan, Mangshan, Xingdoushan and Hunan Shunhuangshan were hotspots for richness of all MVP species, endemic MVP species, and threatened MVP species, playing important roles in MVP conservation in central China. As a whole, existing NNRs in central China protect most MVPs in this region. However, there remains an urgent need for in situ protection of MVPs. Conservation gap species are urgently required to continue field dynamic monitoring and other protective activities.

Key words: endemic medicinal plants, threatened medicinal plants, frequently used medicinal plants, nature reserves, conservation contribution rate, conservation gap