生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (2): 135-143.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019233

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

华中地区国家级自然保护区对药用维管植物的就地保护现状

池秀莲1, 郭婷2, 王庆刚2, 景志贤1, 张小波1, 李晓琳1, 孙楷1, 王铁霖1, 杨光1, *()   

  1. 1 中国中医科学院中药资源中心, 道地药材国家重点实验室培育基地, 北京 100700
    2 中国农业大学资源与环境学院生态科学与工程系, 生物多样性与有机农业北京市重点实验室, 北京 100193
  • 收稿日期:2019-07-23 接受日期:2019-10-23 出版日期:2020-02-20
  • 通讯作者: 杨光 E-mail:hbykdxyg2008@163.com
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金青年基金(81603236);生物多样性保护重大工程专项(19-02)

Evaluation of in situ conservation effectiveness on medicinal vascular plants in national nature reserves in central China

Xiulian Chi1, Ting Guo2, Qinggang Wang2, Zhixian Jing1, Xiaobo Zhang1, Xiaolin Li1, Kai Sun1, Tielin Wang1, Guang Yang1, *()   

  1. 1 National Resource Center for Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Dao-di Herbs, Beijing 100700
    2 Department of Ecology and Ecological Engineering, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, and Key Laboratory of Biodiversity and Organic Farming of Beijing City, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193
  • Received:2019-07-23 Accepted:2019-10-23 Online:2020-02-20
  • Contact: Guang Yang E-mail:hbykdxyg2008@163.com

药用植物野生资源的保护正受到学界乃至全社会的广泛关注。本研究通过收集华中地区(包括湖南、湖北和河南三省)的49个国家级自然保护区的科学考察报告、多样性研究报告以及其他相关文献资料, 结合第四次全国中药资源普查数据, 建立了华中地区国家级自然保护区内药用维管植物数据库, 并评估了这些保护区对华中地区药用维管植物的保护成效。研究发现: 华中地区国家级自然保护区内分布有6,071种药用维管植物, 就地保护比例为81.93%; 其中特有、受威胁和常用药用植物物种数分别为1,479种、224种和448种, 三者受保护比例分别为87.98%、78.87%和91.80%。有32.16%的药用维管植物(2,383种, 特有、受威胁和常用药用植物物种数分别为644种、119种和69种)仅分布于1-5个自然保护区中。森林生态系统类型的自然保护区对不同类群药用植物的保护效果均最好。神农架、金童山、莽山、星斗山及湖南舜皇山5个保护区是所有、特有以及受威胁药用植物物种多样性的热点地区, 是华中地区药用植物保护的重要区域。总体上, 华中地区现有国家级自然保护区较好地覆盖了该地区的药用维管植物, 但药用维管植物的就地保护仍不容懈怠。建议加强对该区域保护空缺物种的野外动态监测和保护。

关键词: 中国特有药用植物, 受威胁药用植物, 常用药用植物, 自然保护区, 保护贡献率, 保护空缺

The conservation of wild resources including medicinal plants has drawn widespread attention from the academic community and society at large. This study integrates the results of scientific investigation reports of 49 national nature reserves (NNR), other related literature, and “the Fourth National Census of Traditional Chinese Medicine Resources” in central China (including Hunan, Hubei, and Henan provinces) to establish a catalogue of medicinal vascular plants (MVP). Based on this dataset and the catalogue of plant species in central China, this study evaluated the effectiveness of NNR networks on conservation of MVPs in central China. We show that 6,071 MVP species, including 1,479 endemic MVP species, 224 threatened MVP species, and 448 frequently used MVP species were covered by at least one NNR in central China. Their in situ conseravation rates were 81.93%, 87.98%, 78.87% and 91.80%, respectively. However, about 32.16% (2,383 MVP species, including 644 endemic MVP species, 119 threatened MVP species and 69 frequently used MVP species) of all the conserved MVPs were only found in 1-5 NNRs. The NNR of the forest ecosystem type performed the best protection efficiency, covering a total of 5,875 MVP species, 1,444 endemic MVP species, 211 threatened MVP species and 442 frequently used MVP species. National nature reserves of Shennongjia, Jintongshan, Mangshan, Xingdoushan and Hunan Shunhuangshan were hotspots for richness of all MVP species, endemic MVP species, and threatened MVP species, playing important roles in MVP conservation in central China. As a whole, existing NNRs in central China protect most MVPs in this region. However, there remains an urgent need for in situ protection of MVPs. Conservation gap species are urgently required to continue field dynamic monitoring and other protective activities.

Key words: endemic medicinal plants, threatened medicinal plants, frequently used medicinal plants, nature reserves, conservation contribution rate, conservation gap

图1

华中地区国家级自然保护区的分布示意图"

表1

华中地区不同类群药用维管植物数量。“/”前、后数字分别表示国家级自然保护区范围内及整个华中地区范围内的药用维管植物数量。"

植物类群
Groups
蕨类植物 Fern 裸子植物 Gymnosperm 被子植物 Angiosperm 合计 Total
科数
Family
属数
Genus
物种数
Species
科数
Family
属数
Genus
物种数
Species
科数
Family
属数
Genus
物种数
Species
科数
Family
属数
Genus
物种数
Species
所有药用植物 All medicinal plants 43/44 102/108 394/449 10/10 30/32 69/85 192/201 1,375/1,580 5,608/6,876 245/255 1,507/1,720 6,071/7,410
特有药用植物 Endemic medicinal plants 10/11 17/18 24/28 7/7 13/13 24/26 123/126 482/525 1,431/1,627 140/144 512/556 1,479/1,681
常用药用植物 Frequently used medicinal plants 9/9 9/9 12/12 5/5 6/6 7/8 103/108 289/312 429/468 117/122 304/327 448/488
受威胁药用植物 Threatened medicinal plants 4/6 6/8 8/10 8/8 17/18 24/27 64/73 116/145 192/247 76/87 139/171 224/284

表2

华中地区对药用维管植物累计保护贡献率达90%的国家级自然保护区情况"

所有药用植物 All medicinal plants 特有药用植物 Endemic medicinal plants 受威胁药用植物 Threatened medicinal plants
保护区简称
Abbreviated name
累计物种数
Accumulative no. of species
累计贡献率
Accumulative contribution
rate (%)
保护区简称
Abbreviated name
累计物种数
Accumulative no. of species
累计贡献率
Accumulative contribution
rate (%)
保护区简称
Abbreviated name
累计物种数
Accumulative no. of species
累计贡献率
Accumulative contribution
rate (%)
神农架 Shennongjia 3,294 58.49 神农架 Shennongjia 857 57.94 神农架 Shennongjia 103 45.98
宝天曼 Baotianman 3,874 68.79 湖南舜皇山 Shunhuangshan, Hunan 984 66.53 鸡公山 Jigongshan 127 56.70
金童山 Jintongshan 4,302 76.38 宝天曼 Baotianman 1,071 72.41 湖南舜皇山 Shunhuangshan, Hunan 146 65.18
高望界 Gaowangjie 4,531 80.45 莽山
Mangshan
1,140 77.08 星斗山 Xingdoushan 157 70.09
太行山猕猴
Taihangshan-
mihou
4,719 83.79 星斗山 Xingdoushan 1,184 80.05 五峰后河 Wufenghouhe 164 73.21
莽山
Mangshan
4,889 86.81 金童山 Jintongshan 1,215 82.15 莽山
Mangshan
170 75.89
星斗山 Xingdoushan 5,014 89.03 五峰后河 Wufenghouhe 1,244 84.11 八大公山 Badagongshan 176 78.57
湖南舜皇山 Hunan Shunhuangshan 5,127 91.03 河南大别山
Henan Dabieshan
1,272 86.00 堵河源 Duheyuan 182 81.25
高望界 Gaowangjie 1,295 87.56 小秦岭 Xiaoqinling 187 83.48
十八里长峡 Shibalichangxia 1,314 88.84 金童山 Jintongshan 192 85.71
九嶷山 Jiuyishan 1,331 89.99 炎陵桃源洞 Yanlingtaoyuandong 196 87.50
七姊妹山 Qizimeishan 1,348 91.14 十八里长峡 Shibalichangxia 200 89.29
九宫山 Jiugongshan 203 90.63

图2

华中地区不同类型国家级自然保护区对不同类群药用维管植物的保护差异"

图3

华中地区不同类群药用维管植物分布的国家级自然保护区数量频率分布"

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