生物多样性

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食物网关键种的判定及其对稳健性的影响

王凤珍, 唐毅   

  1. 辽宁大学生命科学院
  • 收稿日期:2019-07-01 修回日期:2019-09-28 出版日期:2019-11-12
  • 通讯作者: 唐毅

Determination of key species in the food web and its impact on the robustness

Fengzhen Wang1, 2, Yi Tang1, 2   

  1. 1. School of Life Sciences, Liaoning University
    2. School of Life Sciences, Liaoning University
  • Received:2019-07-01 Revised:2019-09-28 Online:2019-11-12
  • Contact: Yi Tang

食物网关键种的定量判定方法不仅有助于揭示食物网中物种关系,而且有利于对关键物种进行优先保护。本研究以包含49个物种的河流生态系统食物网为对象,计算表征网络中度性质的指标(点度中心度、中介中心度、紧密中心度),并根据指标对物种进行聚类,分析不同类物种影响食物网连接稳健性程度的差异,探讨不同节点去除方式下节点数量对食物网连接稳健性的影响。结果发现,聚类将食物网中物种分成三类。I类物种具有相对较高的点度中心度、中介中心度、紧密中心度;II类物种具有相对更低的点度中心度、中介中心度、紧密中心度,III类物种的点度中心度、中介中心度、紧密中心度介于前两者之间。I类物种处于更为重要的地位,可认为是关键种。本研究为如何判定关键种贡献新的思路。另外,升序去除方式下,连接稳健性呈降低趋势;降序去除与随机去除方式下,连接稳健性在持续减小后又有小幅度增加,这表明去除方式对食物网连接稳健性有影响。三种去除方式下,食物网连接稳健性发生显著变化对应着几乎相同的去除节点数量,表明关键种在维持食物网稳健性方面发挥重要作用。

关键词: 聚类分析, 复杂网络, 生态网络, 节点度, 连接稳健性

Determining quantitatively key species helps to reveal the relationship between species and plays a vital role in protecting key species prior. Here, we calculated the indicators, i.e., Betweenness Centrality(BC), Closeness Centrality(CC), and Degree Centrality(DC) in a food web with 49 species. We conducted the clustering analysis according to the indicators mentioned above, analyzed the influence of species in kinds of classes on the connectivity robustness, and explore the effects of the number of removed nodes on connectivity robustness under removal modes. The results showed that species in this food web could be divided into three categories. Class I species have relatively higher values in BC, CC, and DC; Class II species have relatively lower values in BC, CC, and DC. The values of BC, CC, and DC of Class III species are between Class I species and Class II species. Class I species are more important in the food web and could be considered as key species. This finding contributes to how to determine quantitatively key species in food webs. Besides, the connectivity robustness decreased along with the increase in removed nodes under the ascending order removal mode. In the descending order and random removal modes, the connectivity robustness slightly increased after a continuous decrease along with the increase in removed nodes. It indicates that removal modes significantly affect the connectivity robustness. Moreover, under the three removal methods, the significant change in the connectivity robustness corresponds to almost the same number of removed nodes. It suggests key species play an essential role in maintaining the connectivity robustness of the food web.

Key words: Cluster analysis, Complex network, Ecological network, Node degree, Connectivity robustness

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