生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (1): 4-10.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019173

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中国大型真菌红色名录评估研究进展

姚一建1, *(), 魏江春1, 2, 庄文颖1, 蔡蕾3, 刘冬梅4, 李俊生4, 魏铁铮1, 李熠5, 王科1, 2, 吴海军1   

  1. 1. 中国科学院微生物研究所真菌学国家重点实验室, 北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
    3. 生态环境部自然生态保护司, 北京 100035
    4. 中国环境科学研究院国家环境保护区域生态过程与功能评估重点实验室, 北京 100012
    5. 扬州大学食品科学与工程学院, 江苏扬州 225127
  • 收稿日期:2019-05-24 接受日期:2019-07-02 出版日期:2020-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 姚一建 E-mail:yaoyj@im ac.cn
  • 基金项目:
    生态环境部生物多样性调查评估项目(2019HJ2096001006)

Development of red list assessment of macrofungi in China

Yijian Yao1, *(), Jiangchun Wei1, 2, Wenying Zhuang1, Lei Cai3, Dongmei Liu4, Junsheng Li4, Tiezheng Wei1, Yi Li5, Ke Wang1, 2, Haijun Wu1   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
    3. Department of Nature and Ecology Conservation, Ministry of Ecology and Environment, Beijing 100035
    4. State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Regional Eco-process and Function Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
    5. School of Food Science and Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu 225127
  • Received:2019-05-24 Accepted:2019-07-02 Online:2020-01-20
  • Contact: Yijian Yao E-mail:yaoyj@im ac.cn

大型真菌具有重要的生态价值和经济价值, 但由于环境污染、气候变化、生境丧失与破碎化, 以及资源过度利用等因素, 其生物多样性受到严重威胁。为了全面评估中国大型真菌的生存状况, 国家生态环境部(原环境保护部)联合中国科学院于2016年启动了《中国生物多样性红色名录——大型真菌卷》的编制工作。经广泛和全面收集文献资料, 依据IUCN物种红色名录等级与标准, 结合大型真菌特点和国内研究现状, 制定了中国大型真菌红色名录评估方法和流程, 动员和组织了全国相关研究力量, 对9,302种大型真菌的受威胁状况进行了评估。结果显示, 中国大型真菌受威胁物种(包括疑似灭绝、极危、濒危、易危)共97个, 占被评估物种总数的1.04%; 近危101种, 占总数的1.09%; 无危2,764种, 占总数的29.71%; 数据不足6,340种, 占总数的68.16%。此次评估工作汇集了全国140多位专家的智慧, 是国内外迄今为止涉及物种数量最大、类群范围最宽、覆盖地域最广、参与人员最多的一次大型真菌生存状况评估, 对我国大型真菌多样性保护与管理具有重要意义。

关键词: 大型真菌, IUCN等级与标准, 红色名录

Macrofungi are important with both their ecological and socioeconomic values. Due to environmental pollution, climate change, habitat loss and fragmentation, and over-exploitation of resources, the diversity of macrofungi is under serious threatened. To evaluate the threatened status of macrofungi nationwide in China, the project of “Red List Assessment of Macrofungi in China” was officially launched in 2016 by the Ministry of Ecology and Environment (formerly the Ministry of Environmental Protection) in conjunction with the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Based on extensive and comprehensive collection of literature on the occurrence and distribution of macrofungi in China, and referring to the categories and criteria of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Species, the evaluation methods and process of the Red List of China's macrofungi were formulated according to the biological features of macrofungi and the current understanding of macrofungi in China. Experts on macrofungi around China were mobilized and organized to assess the threatened status of 9,302 species of macrofungi reported in China. Ninety-seven species are considered under threatened (including Possibly Extinct, Critically Endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable), accounting for 1.04% of the total number of species assessed; 101 species are Near Threatened, 2,764 species are Least Concern and 6,340 species are Data Deficient, occupying 1.09%, 29.71% and 68.16%, successively, of the species assessed. The assessment, which brings together the wisdom of more than 140 experts all over the country, is the first nationwide attempt to assess the threaten status of macrofungi in China, involving the largest number of macrofungal species, the widest range of macrofungal groups, the widest coverage of distribution area and the largest number of expert participants at home and abroad. It is of great significance to the conservation and management of the diversity of macrofungi in China.

Key words: macrofungi, IUCN Categories and Criteria, red list

表1

中国大型真菌红色名录评估结果"

评估等级
Categories
类群 Taxa 总物种数
Total species (%)
大型子囊菌
Macro-ascomycetes
大型担子菌
Macro-basidiomycetes
地衣型真菌
Lichens
灭绝 Extinct (EX) 0 0 0 0 (0)
野外灭绝 Extinct in the Wild (EW) 0 0 0 0 (0)
疑似灭绝 Possibly Extinct (PE) 1 0 0 1 (0.01)
极危 Critically Endangered (CR) 6 0 3 9 (0.10)
濒危 Endangered (EN) 3 15 7 25 (0.27)
易危 Vulnerable (VU) 14 30 18 62 (0.67)
近危 Near Threatened (NT) 41 54 6 101 (1.09)
无危 Least Concern (LC) 189 1,918 657 2,764 (29.71)
数据不足 Data Deficient (DD) 616 4,251 1,473 6,340 (68.16)
总数 Total 870 6,268 2,164 9,302 (100)
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