生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (9): 1229-1235.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2021020

• 研究报告:微生物多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

雾灵山国家级自然保护区大型真菌物种多样性

杨苗1, 张杰1, 白嘉伟1, 郭建刚2, 曲亚辉2, 李会平1,3,*()   

  1. 1.河北农业大学林学院, 河北保定 071000
    2.河北雾灵山国家级自然保护区管理中心, 河北承德 067300
    3.河北省城市森林健康技术创新中心, 河北保定 071000
  • 收稿日期:2021-01-14 接受日期:2021-04-12 出版日期:2021-09-20 发布日期:2021-05-28
  • 通讯作者: 李会平
  • 作者简介:* E-mail: 805737255@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    河北雾灵山国家级自然保护区管理局资助项目(LX181102)

Species diversity of macrofungi in the Wuling Mountain National Nature Reserve

Miao Yang1, Jie Zhang1, Jiawei Bai1, Jiangang Guo2, Yahui Qu2, Huiping Li1,3,*()   

  1. 1 College of Forestry, Hebei Agricultural University, Baoding, Hebei 071000
    2 Wuling Mountain National Nature Reserve Management Center, Chengde, Hebei 067300
    3 Hebei Urban Forest Health Technology Innovation Center, Baoding, Hebei 071000
  • Received:2021-01-14 Accepted:2021-04-12 Online:2021-09-20 Published:2021-05-28
  • Contact: Huiping Li

摘要:

大型真菌在维持生态系统稳定和为人类提供经济价值方面都具有重要作用, 本文对雾灵山国家级自然保护区中的大型真菌资源进行了详细调查, 为该保护区大型真菌资源开发和利用提供基础资料。作者于2019‒2020年采用样线法和随机踏查法对该保护区大型真菌物种资源多样性进行了初步调查和评估, 共采集大型真菌标本1,132份。结合形态学和ITS序列证据进行了鉴定, 并通过查阅相关文献资料对该保护区大型真菌物种资源价值进行了评价。结果表明: 雾灵山国家级自然保护区共有236种大型真菌, 隶属于2门6纲18目56科107属, 其中15种属于子囊菌门, 221种属于担子菌门。为方便统计, 将大于等于10个种的科定为优势科, 大于等于5个种的属定为优势属。其中优势科有红菇科、蘑菇科、多孔菌科和丝膜菌科, 每个科所包含的种数分别占总种数的8.90%、7.20%、5.93%和4.24%, 共计62种。优势属有红菇属(Russula)、蘑菇属(Agaricus)、鹅膏菌属(Amanita)、丝膜菌属(Cortinarius)、马勃属(Lycoperdon)、小皮伞属(Marasmius)等11个属, 共包含79个种, 占总种数的33.48%。对大型真菌的资源价值评价的结果显示, 保护区内共有食用菌66种、药用菌35种、有毒菌36种和食药兼用菌26种。研究结果表明, 雾灵山国家级自然保护区大型真菌资源丰富, 优势科和优势属中最为丰富的分别是红菇科和红菇属(Russula), 具有经济价值的菌达127种, 为食用菌的引种驯化、药用菌开发利用亦或有毒菌鉴别提供了丰富资源。

关键词: 雾灵山, 大型真菌, 物种多样性, 优势科属, 应用价值

Abstract

Aims: Macrofungi plays a vital role in maintaining the stability of ecosystem and making unique and vital contributions to human economy. In order to provide basic information for the development and utilization of macrofungi, a detailed investigation of the macrofungi resources in the Wuling Mountain National Nature Reserve was carried out.
Methods: A preliminary survey and assessment of the macrofungal species diversity in the reserve was conducted between 2019 and 2020 using methods of line-transect surveys and random investigation. Totally, 1,132 specimens of macrofungi were collected. The diversity was analyzed based on morphological data and ITS evidence, and its resource value was evaluated by referring to relevant scientific literature.
Results: A total of 236 species of macrofungi were indentified in Wuling Mountain National Nature Reserve, belonging to 107 genera, 56 families, 18 orders, 6 classes, and 2 phyla. Of these, 15 species are classified as Ascomycota, and 221 species as Basidiomycota. For the convenience of statistics, families with more than ten species were defined as dominant families, and genera with more than five species were defined as dominant genera. The dominant families consisting of 62 species are Russulaceae, Agaricaceae, Polyporaceae, and Cortinariaceae. The number of species contained in each family account for 8.90%, 7.20%, 5.93% and 4.24% of the total number of species, respectively. Eleven fungal genera are dominant, such as Russula, Agaricus, Amanita, Cortinarius, Lycoperdon, and Marasmius. These genera consist of 79 species, accounting for 33.48% of the total species. The results of the evaluation of the resource value of macrofungi showed that there are 66 edible, 35 medicinal, 36 poisonous, and 26 both edible and medicinal species in the reserve.
Conclusion: The reserve is rich in macrofungal resources. The richest dominant families and dominant genera are Russulaceae and Russula. There are 127 species of valuable fungi. Meanwhile, the results provides rich resources for the introduction and domestication of edible fungi, the development and utilization of medicinal fungi, as well as the identification of toxic fungi.

Key words: Wuling Mountain, macrofungi, species diversity, dominant family and genera, application value