生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (1): 11-19.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019172

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中国大型真菌红色名录评估方法和程序

王科1, 2, 刘冬梅3, 蔡蕾4, 吴海军1, 2, 李熠1, 5, 魏铁铮1, 王永会1, 2, 吴红梅1, 2, 卫晓丹1, 2, 李斌斌1, 2, 李俊生3, *(), 姚一建1, *()   

  1. 1. 中国科学院微生物研究所真菌学国家重点实验室, 北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
    3. 中国环境科学研究院国家环境保护区域生态过程与功能评估重点实验室, 北京 100012
    4. 生态环境部自然生态保护司, 北京 100035
    5. 扬州大学食品科学与工程学院, 江苏扬州 225127
  • 收稿日期:2019-05-23 接受日期:2019-07-09 出版日期:2020-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 李俊生,姚一建 E-mail:lijsh@craes.org.cn;yaoyj@im.ac.cn
  • 基金项目:
    生态环境部生物多样性调查评估项目(2019HJ2096001006)

Methods and procedures of the red list assessment of macrofungi in China

Ke Wang1, 2, Dongmei Liu3, Lei Cai4, Haijun Wu1, 2, Yi Li1, 5, Tiezheng Wei1, Yonghui Wang1, 2, Hongmei Wu1, 2, Xiaodan Wei1, 2, Binbin Li1, 2, Junsheng Li3, *(), Yijian Yao1, *()   

  1. State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
    University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
    State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Regional Eco-process and Function Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
    Department of Nature and Ecology Conservation, Ministry of Ecology and Environment, Beijing 100035
    School of Food Science and Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu 225127
  • Received:2019-05-23 Accepted:2019-07-09 Online:2020-01-20
  • Contact: Junsheng Li,Yijian Yao E-mail:lijsh@craes.org.cn;yaoyj@im.ac.cn

在中国大型真菌红色名录评估过程中, 根据大型真菌与动植物在生物学特性上的差异, 对IUCN物种红色名录标准做了适当调整, 形成了“中国大型真菌红色名录评估等级与标准”, 即: (1)依据可见的分布地点和子实体数量来估计、推测或判断种群的波动以及种群成熟个体数量的变化; (2)以一定的时间段代替世代时长来计算种群的变化情况; (3)将“疑似灭绝”作为一个独立的评估等级。评估基本数据来自于中国菌物名录数据库、真菌分类文献资料和专家咨询, 评估过程包括任务分工、数据收集、评估物种确定、建立评估表、初评、专家评审和编制红色名录等步骤, 最终完成《中国生物多样性红色名录——大型真菌卷》的编制。

关键词: IUCN, 红色名录等级和标准, 疑似灭绝, 大型真菌, 评估过程

In The Red List Assessment of Macrofungi in China project, the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria were adjusted according to differences in biological characteristics among plants, animals, and macrofungi. The adjustments are as follows: (1) population fluctuation and mature population members were estimated according to visible distribution and fruiting bodies, (2) a certain time period (rather than generation time) was used to calculate population change, (3) Possibly Extinct was added as an additional threatened category. The assessed data was based on the Checklist of Fungi in China database, fungal taxonomy literature, and expert consultation. Lastly, the Red List of China’s Biodiversity—Macrofungi was compiled via task assignment, data collection, assessed species verification, initial assessment, expert assessment, and red list compilation.

Key words: IUCN, red list categories and criteria, Possibly Extinct, macrofungi, assessment procedure

图1

中国大型真菌红色名录评估等级体系"

Table 1

Criteria of red list assessment of macrofungi in China"

A: 种群1减少。基于A1到A4中任何一种在30年内种群减少
Population1 size reduction. Population reduction (measured over the longer of 30 years) based on any of A1 to A4
极危 CR 濒危 EN 易危 VU
A1 ≥ 90% ≥ 70% ≥ 50%
A2, A3 & A4 ≥ 80% ≥ 50% ≥ 30%
A1: 通过观测、估计、推断或猜测, 种群在过去有所减少, 其致危因素是可逆转的、可理解并能终止的。Population reduction observed, estimated, inferred, or suspected in the past where the causes of the reduction are clearly reversible and understood and have ceased.
A2: 通过观测、估计、推断或猜测, 种群在过去有所减少, 其致危因素是不能逆转、不能理解、也不能终止的。Population reduction observed, estimated, inferred, or suspected in the past where the causes of reduction may not have ceased or may not be understood or may not be reversible.
A3: 通过观测、估计、推断或猜测, 种群在未来(最长100年内)有所减少[(a)不能用于A3]。Population reduction projected, inferred or suspected to be met in the future (up to a maximum of 100 years) [(a) cannot be used for A3].
A4: 通过观测、估计、推断或猜测, 种群必须在过去和未来(最长100年内)都有所减少, 其致危因素是不能逆转、不能理解也不能终止的。An observed, estimated, inferred, projected or suspected population reduction where the time period must include both the past and the future (up to a max. of 100 years in future), and where the causes of reduction may not have ceased or may not be understood or may not be reversible.
(a)直接观察(除了A3) Direct observation (except A3)
(b)适合该分类单位的丰富度指数 An index of abundance appropriate to the taxon
(c)占有面积、分布范围减少或/和栖息地质量下降 A decline in area of occupancy (AOO), extent of occurrence (EOO) and/or habitat quality
(d)实际的或潜在的开发利用影响 Actual or potential levels of exploitation
(e)受外来物种、杂交、病原、污染、竞争者或寄生物带来的不利影响 Effects of introduced taxa, hybridization, pathogens, pollutants, competitors or parasites.
B: 地理分布范围减少, 或具有少数地点、严重破碎或种群波动
Geographic range in the form of either B1 (extent of occurrence) and/or B2 (area of occupancy)
极危 CR 濒危 EN 易危 VU
B1: 分布区 Extent of occurrence (EOO) 2 < 100 km2 < 5,000 km2 < 20,000 km2
B2: 占有面积 Area of occupancy (AOO) 3 < 10 km2 < 500 km2 < 2,000 km2
以下3个条件中至少满足2条 And at least 2 of the following 3 conditions:
(a)生境严重破碎或已知分布点数
Severely fragmented or number of locations
= 1 ≤ 5 ≤ 10
(b)以下条件中任一下降或减少 Continuing decline observed, estimated, inferred or projected in any of:
(i)分布范围 Extent of occurrence; (ii)占有面积 Area of occupancy; (iii)生境面积、范围和/或质量 Area, extent and/or quality of habitat; (iv)地点或亚种群的数目 Number of locations or subpopulations; (v)成熟个体数 Number of mature individuals。
(c)以下条件中任一极度波动 Extreme fluctuations in any of:
(i)分布范围 Extent of occurrence; (ii)占有面积 Area of occupancy; (iii)生长地点数或亚种群数 Number of locations or subpopulations; (iv)成熟个体数 Number of mature individuals。
C: 小种群且在衰退 Small population size and decline
极危 CR 濒危 EN 易危 VU
成熟个体4数量 Number of mature individuals < 250 < 2,500 < 10,000
C1和C2至少满足一个条件 And at least one of C1 or C2
C1: 估计持续下降的幅度 An observed, estimated or projected continuing decline of at least: 10年内持续下降至少25%
At least continuous 25%
decline within 10 years
15年内持续下降至少20% At least continuous 20% decline within 15 years 30年内持续下降至少10%
At least continuous 10%
decline within 30 years
C2: 持续下降, 且符合以下至少1个条件 An observed, estimated, projected or inferred continuing decline and at least 1 of the following 3 conditions:
(a) (i)每个亚种群成熟个体数 Number of mature individuals in each subpopulation < 50 < 250 < 1,000
(ii)一个亚种群个体数占总数的百分比
Percentage of mature individuals in one subpopulation
90%-100% 95%-100% 100%
(b) 成熟个体数量极度波动 Extreme fluctuations in the number of mature individuals
D: 小种群或局限分布 Very small or restricted population
极危 CR 濒危 EN 易危 VU
D1: 种群成熟个体数 Number of mature individuals < 50 < 250 < 1,000
D2: 易受人类活动影响, 可能在极短时间成为极危, 甚至灭绝 Only applies to the VU category restricted area of occupancy or number of locations with a plausible future threat that could drive the taxon to CR or EX in a very short time 种群占有面积< 20 km2或地点< 5个 Typically: AOO < 20 km² or number of locations ≤ 5
E: 定量分析 Quantitative analysis
极危 CR 濒危 EN 易危 VU
使用定量模型评估野外灭绝率
Indicating the probability of extinction in the wild to be:
≥ 50% (今后10年或三世代内 In 10 years or 3 generations, whichever is longer) ≥ 20% (今后20年或五世代内 In 20 years or 5 generations, whichever is longer) ≥ 10% (今后100年内 In 100 years)

图2

中国大型真菌红色名录评估网站首页"

图3

中国大型真菌红色名录评估网站评审系统"

Appendix 1

Template of assessed species information"

分类地位 Taxonomy
界 Kingdom 门 Phylum 纲 Class 目 Order 科 Family
真菌界 Fungi 子囊菌门 Ascomycota 锤舌菌纲 Leotiomycetes 未定目 Incertae sedis 未定科 Incertae sedis
学名 Scientific Name Hemiglossum yunnanense
汉语学名 Chinese Name 云南假地舌菌
命名人 Species Authority Pat.
同物异名 Synonym(s) = Microglossum yunnanense (Pat.) Sacc.
分类备注 Taxonomic Notes 该物种为1890年基于采自云南大理的单一标本发表的新种, 目前全世界仅存一份标本, 此后100多年里再无新的采集记录。
评估信息 Assessment Information
红色名录等级及标准 Red List Category & Criteria 疑似灭绝 PE
发布年份 Year Published 2018
评估日期 Date Assessed 2016/9/27
评定人 Assessor(s) 庄文颖, 李熠
审定人 Reviewer(s) 徐阿生, 姚一建
描述 Justification 该物种自Patouillard (1890)发表后再没有被采集到。我国真菌学研究人员十分关注此物种, 多次前往模式产地(云南大理苍山)开展调查, 都未再发现。随着人类活动的影响和环境变迁, 该物种可能已处于极度濒危或更加危险的灭绝状态。本次评估将该物种列为“疑似灭绝(PE)”。该物种种群在过去减少的幅度可能超过90%, 栖息地质量下降, 分布面积 < 100 km2, 生境严重破碎。
地理分布 Geographic Range
分布区 Range Description 云南
分布国家 Countries Occurrence 中国
分布图 Range Map
种群 Population
种群数量 Population Size 减少
种群趋势 Current Population Trend 衰退
附件信息 Additional Data
生境 Habitat and Ecology
生境 Habitat and Ecology
生态系统 Ecosystems
世代年限 Generation Length (years)
商业用途 Use and Trade
商业用途 Use and Trade
威胁因子 Threats
主要威胁因子 Major Threat(s) 中国特有种, 分布区域狭小, 种群数量有限。
保护行动 Conservation Actions
保护行动 Conservation Actions 该物种未被列入国家保护物种, 其分布地未被保护区覆盖。为了彻底澄清该物种的受威胁状态, 建议启动针对该物种的实地调查和监测, 并考虑必要的保护措施。
参考文献 Citation
Patouillard NT (1890) Quelques champignons de la Chine récolté par M. l'abbé Delavay. Revue Mycologique Toulouse, 12, 133-136.
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