生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (1): 41-53.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019164

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中国大型担子菌受威胁现状评估

魏铁铮1,王科1,2,于晓丹3,李熠4,吴海军1,吴红梅1,王永会1,2,卫晓丹1,李斌斌1,蒋岚1,姚一建1,*()   

  1. 1. 中国科学院微生物研究所真菌学国家重点实验室, 北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
    3. 沈阳农业大学生物科学技术学院, 沈阳 110866
    4. 扬州大学食品科学与工程学院, 江苏扬州 225127
  • 收稿日期:2019-05-14 接受日期:2019-07-09 出版日期:2020-01-20 发布日期:2019-12-24
  • 通讯作者: 姚一建
  • 基金资助:
    生态环境部生物多样性调查评估项目(2019HJ2096001006)

Assessment of the threatened status of macro-basidiomycetes in China

Tiezheng Wei1,Ke Wang1,2,Xiaodan Yu3,Yi Li4,Haijun Wu1,Hongmei Wu1,Yonghui Wang1,2,Xiaodan Wei1,Binbin Li1,Lan Jiang1,Yijian Yao1,*()   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
    3. Colloge of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866
    4. School of Food Science and Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu 225127
  • Received:2019-05-14 Accepted:2019-07-09 Online:2020-01-20 Published:2019-12-24
  • Contact: Yijian Yao

摘要:

基于文献和标本信息以及专家提供的数据, 依据中国大型真菌评估的标准和程序, 对中国范围内已知大型担子菌进行了受威胁状态评估。结果显示, 在评估的6,268种担子菌中, 受威胁(疑似灭绝、极危、濒危、易危)的物种有45种, 受威胁比例为0.72%。受威胁的大型担子菌物种中食药用菌比例达1/3以上, 且大部分物种仍无法人工栽培, 主要依赖野生资源。我国受威胁担子菌主要集中分布在西南和东北地区。人类活动导致的物种栖息地萎缩和破坏是我国大型担子菌受威胁的首要因子, 过度采挖是食药用菌受威胁的重要原因。此外, 数据不足的大型担子菌共4,251种, 占被评估大型担子菌总数的67.82%, 表明我国大型担子菌物种多样性及相关研究还存在不足。

关键词: 真菌, 红色名录, 受威胁物种, 食药用菌

Abstract:

A red list assessment of macrofungi was performed to determine the threatened status of known macro-basidiomycetes in China. Forty-five species were considered threatened, with species classified as either Possibly Extinct (PE), Critically Endangered (CR), Endangered (EN) or Vulnerable (VU). These species account for 0.72% of the 6,268 macro-basidiomycete species. More than one-third of the threatened species are edible or medicinal fungi, and most of them are uncultivable, meaning they only grow in the wild. The threatened basidiomycete species are mainly distributed across Southwest and Northeast China. The main threats to these species are shrinking and destruction of habitat caused by human activities, although excessive picking is a major threat for the edible and medicinal species. However, there were insufficient data for 4,251 macro-basidiomycetes species, 67.82% of all species, which suggests that this red list assessment is incomplete.

Key words: fungi, red list, threatened species, edible or medicinal fungi