生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (1): 54-65.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2019154

• 编者按 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国地衣的濒危等级评估

魏鑫丽1,邓红1,魏江春1,2,*()   

  1. 1. 中国科学院微生物研究所真菌学国家重点实验室, 北京 100101
    2. 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2019-05-07 接受日期:2019-07-11 出版日期:2020-01-20 发布日期:2019-12-27
  • 通讯作者: 魏江春
  • 基金资助:
    生态环境部生物多样性调查评估项目(2019HJ2096001006);国家自然科学基金(31770022)

Threatened categories assessment of lichens in China

Xinli Wei1,Hong Deng1,Jiangchun Wei1,2,*()   

  1. 1. State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
    2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2019-05-07 Accepted:2019-07-11 Online:2020-01-20 Published:2019-12-27
  • Contact: Jiangchun Wei

摘要:

地衣是大型真菌的重要组成部分, 是中国大型真菌红色名录评估的主要对象之一。本次评估的地衣共2,164种, 其中子囊菌地衣2,145种, 担子菌地衣19种, 分属于2门9纲34目92科352属。评估结果显示, 地衣受威胁物种共28种, 占被评估地衣物种总数的1.29%, 其中极危3种, 濒危7种, 易危18种; 近危6种, 无危657种, 而数据不足的物种达1,473种。这类因为缺乏足够的数据资料而未能进一步评估其生存状态和红色名录等级的物种占评估地衣总数的68.07%, 凸显了我国地衣学研究的严峻形势及对地衣分类学人才的迫切需要。对受威胁物种的分析表明, 地衣由于自身生长缓慢和对环境污染敏感, 并且绝大多数分布区域狭窄, 种群数量少, 对生境退化的适应和恢复生长的能力弱, 人类活动和气候变化导致的栖息地破坏和碎片化使得这些地衣的生存受到严重威胁。值得注意的是, 评为易危的一些地衣, 因具有较大的食药用价值而被过度采挖利用, 如不采取有效保护措施, 其受威胁程度将进一步加剧。

关键词: IUCN红色名录, 受威胁类群, 评估, 地衣, 中国

Abstract:

Lichens are important components of macrofungi, and thus they are also main subjects in the Red List Assessment of Macrofungi in China. A total of 2,164 lichen species were evaluated here, including 2,145 ascomycete lichen species and 19 basidiomycete lichen species. These species were organized into 2 phyla, 9 classes, 34 orders, 92 families and 352 genera. The results showed that, of the 28 species identified as threatened, 3 species were Critically Endangered (CR), 7 species were Endangered (EN) and 18 species were Vulnerable (VU). These 28 represented 1.29% of all evaluated species, with 6 other species considered to be Near Threatened (NT) and 657 species assessed as Least Concern (LC). More than half the species, 1,473 (68.07%), were Data Deficient (DD) and could not be further evaluated due to lack of data. This highlights the severe lack of lichen research and the urgent need for lichen taxonomists in China. The extremely slow growth, weak adaptability to habitat degradation, particular sensitivity to air pollution, narrow distribution and small population size characteristic of lichens all contribute to the susceptible state of lichens that face habitat destruction caused by human activities. In addition, it is worth noting that some lichen species evaluated as Vulnerable here, have since been overexploited due to their edibility and well-known medicinal value. These species’ conservation status will be further aggravated if they continue to lack effective protection.

Key words: IUCN red list, endangered taxa, assessment, lichen, China