生物多样性 ›› 2020, Vol. 28 ›› Issue (3): 340-349.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019112

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

5种东北红豆杉植物群丛及其物种多样性的比较

刘丹1, 2, 郭忠玲1, 2, *(), 崔晓阳2, 范春楠1   

  1. 1. 北华大学林学院, 吉林吉林 132013
    2. 东北林业大学林学院, 哈尔滨 150040
  • 收稿日期:2019-04-01 接受日期:2019-11-04 出版日期:2020-03-20
  • 通讯作者: 郭忠玲 E-mail:gzl65@163.com
  • 基金项目:
    国家重点研发计划(2016YFC0503100);“极小种群野生植物回归技术研究与示范”课题(2016YFC0503106)

Comparison of five associations of Taxus cuspidata and their species diversity

Dan Liu1, 2, Zhongling Guo1, 2, *(), Xiaoyang Cui2, Chunnan Fan1   

  1. 1. College of Forestry, Beihua University, Jilin, Jilin 132013
    2. School of Forestry, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040
  • Received:2019-04-01 Accepted:2019-11-04 Online:2020-03-20
  • Contact: Zhongling Guo E-mail:gzl65@163.com

东北红豆杉(Taxus cuspidata)是我国数量极少的珍贵濒危树种, 了解其天然群落的组成和特征对东北红豆杉种群的保护利用和恢复有重要意义。本文对吉林省天然东北红豆杉群落进行调查, 根据物种组成进行系统聚类分析。将20块40 m × 40 m样地划分为5种群丛类型, 分别以优势种进行命名, 即: Ⅰ. 舞鹤草-五味子+狗枣猕猴桃-紫椴+臭冷杉群丛; II. 东北羊角芹-狗枣猕猴桃-臭冷杉群丛; III. 盾叶唐松草-狗枣猕猴桃-臭冷杉群丛; IV. 舞鹤草-软枣猕猴桃-红松+紫椴+臭冷杉群丛; V. 舞鹤草-软枣猕猴桃-紫椴+臭冷杉群丛。对群丛的物种组成、群落结构和群丛类型、物种多样性进行了分析。物种多样性选用Menhinick丰富度指数、Pielou均匀度指数、Simpson优势度指数以及Shannon-Wiener多样性指数, 对比分析不同群丛特征。结果显示: 东北红豆杉植物群落组成中蔷薇科的种和属数所占比例最大; 5个群丛的多样性指数顺序为群丛V > 群丛III > 群丛IV > 群丛II > 群丛Ⅰ; 群丛Ⅰ和II具有较低的多样性和较高的优势度, 群丛II和群丛III的乔木层的多样性指数差异不明显, 但其丰富度指数和优势度指数却呈现了相反的特征; 群丛II丰富度低而优势度高, 而群丛III丰富度高而优势度低; 群丛III中的草本层的多样性高于乔木层, 群落郁闭度较低; 群丛IV和群丛V均位于和龙市荒沟林场, 随着海拔上升, 其物种多样性随之下降。结果表明, 不同物种组成的东北红豆杉植物群丛的群落特征存在显著差异。

关键词: 物种组成, 群丛, 系统聚类分析, 物种多样性, 东北红豆杉

Taxus cuspidata is a rare and endangered species in China. Understanding the composition and characteristics of its natural communities is of great significance for its conservation, utilization and restoration. In this study, with hierarchical clustering based on species composition, we classified 20 plots of 40 m × 40 m in Jilin Province into five associations, which were named after dominant species, respectively, i.e., I. Maianthemum bifolium-Schisandra chinensis + Actinidia kolomikta-Tilia amurensis + Abies nephrolepis, II. Aegopodium alpestre-Actinidia kolomikta-Abies nephrolepis, III. Thalictrum ichangense-Actinidia kolomikta-Abies nephrolepis, IV. Maianthemum bifolium-Actinidia arguta-Pinus koraiensis + Tilia amurensis + Abies nephrolepis, and V. Maianthemum bifolium-Actinidia arguta-Tilia amurensis + Abies nephrolepis. The composition, community structure, association type, and species diversity were analysized. Species diversity was indicated by the Menhinick richness index, Pielou evenness index, Simpson dominance index and Shannon-Wiener diversity index. The results suggested that the Rosaceae genera comprised a large majority of T. cuspidata communities. The diversity index of the five associations ranked as Assoc. V > Assoc. III > Assoc. IV > Assoc. II > Assoc. I. Assoc. I and Assoc. II had lower diversity and higher dominance. The differences in the diversity indices of the arbor layers in associations II and association III were not significant, but the dominance index and the richness index demonstrated an opposite trend. However, the richness was higher and the dominance was lower in association III. The herb layer’s diversity index was higher than the arbor layer’s in association III so that the coverage in association III was lower in community. Both Assoc. IV and Assoc. V were located in Huanggou Forest Farm in Helong City. With the rise in altitude, the species diversity decreases. It showed that there were significant differences in the community characteristics of T. cuspidata communities with different dominant species.

Key words: species composition, association, hierarchical cluster analysis, species diversity, Taxus cuspidata

表1

东北红豆杉群落优势种群的重要值(重要值 > 2%)"

层次
Layer
物种名
Species
拉丁名
Latin name
相对多度
Relative abundance
相对盖度
Relative coverage
相对频度
Relative frequency
重要值
Importance value
乔木层
Arbor
色木槭 Acer mono 1.37% 78.73% 2.15% 27.42%
臭冷杉 Abies nephrolepis 22.39% 4.35% 20.57% 15.77%
紫椴 Tilia amurensis 12.14% 4.27% 11.05% 9.15%
髭脉槭 Acer barbinerve 12.33% 0.51% 9.40% 7.41%
花楷槭 Acer ukurunduense 11.64% 0.54% 9.55% 7.24%
东北红豆杉 Taxus cuspidata 6.79% 1.80% 8.64% 5.74%
青楷槭 Acer tegmentosum 8.06% 0.66% 7.04% 5.25%
红松 Pinus koraiensis 4.08% 2.55% 5.60% 4.08%
硕桦 Betula costata 4.90% 1.50% 5.66% 4.02%
鱼鳞云杉 Picea jezoensis 3.41% 2.06% 4.95% 3.47%
杉松 Abies holophylla 2.88% 0.55% 3.71% 2.38%
灌木层
Shrub
软枣猕猴桃 Actinidia arguta 17.09% 30.29% 15.67% 21.02%
狗枣猕猴桃 Actinidia kolomikta 18.18% 18.60% 11.04% 15.94%
刺五加 Acanthopanax senticosus 9.02% 8.40% 11.48% 9.63%
长白忍冬 Lonicera ruprechtiana 11.60% 6.29% 9.05% 8.98%
东北溲疏 Deutzia parviflora 5.70% 9.01% 8.17% 7.63%
瘤枝卫矛 Euonymus verrucosus 4.61% 2.70% 7.51% 4.94%
五味子 Schisandra chinensis 6.38% 5.55% 2.43% 4.78%
长白茶藨 Ribes komarovii 5.36% 2.30% 6.18% 4.61%
栓翅卫矛 Euonymus phellomanus 6.21% 1.82% 4.86% 4.30%
卫矛 Euonymus alatus 3.26% 1.29% 5.74% 3.43%
东北山梅花 Philadelphus schrenkii 2.68% 4.36% 3.09% 3.38%
辽东楤木 Aralia elata 1.80% 2.99% 3.09% 2.62%
草本层
Herbage
盾叶唐松草 Thalictrum ichangense 11.46% 9.62% 17.82% 12.97%
东北羊角芹 Aegopodium alpestre 11.83% 8.34% 14.50% 11.56%
舞鹤草 Maianthemum bifolium 12.47% 11.24% 9.75% 11.15%
白花酢浆草 Oxalis acetosella 14.00% 9.83% 9.07% 10.97%
丝引薹草 Carex remotiuscula 9.95% 6.06% 5.40% 7.14%
稀羽鳞毛蕨 Dryopteris sparsa 4.83% 4.64% 9.25% 6.24%
华西龙头草 Meehania fargesii 2.85% 3.97% 2.50% 3.11%
东北蹄盖蕨 Athyrium brevifrons 0.88% 1.41% 4.16% 2.15%
毛缘薹草 Carex pilosa 2.24% 1.75% 2.16% 2.05%

表2

东北红豆杉群落重要科、属和种的组成"

科名 Family 属数 No. of genus 属的百分比 % of genus 种数 No. of species 种的百分比 % of species
蔷薇科 Rosaceae 9 9.09 11 7.64
槭树科 Aceraceae 1 1.01 9 6.25
松科 Pinaceae 4 4.04 9 6.25
百合科 Liliaceae 8 8.08 8 5.56
毛茛科 Ranunculaceae 6 6.06 8 5.56
虎耳草科 Saxifragaceae 6 6.06 7 4.86
桦木科 Betulaceae 3 3.03 6 4.17
伞形科 Umbelliferae 6 6.06 6 4.17
堇菜科 Violaceae 1 1.01 5 3.47
菊科 Compositae 4 4.04 5 3.47
其他 Other families 51 51.52 70 48.61

图1

东北红豆杉群落样地(优势种群重要值)聚类图"

表3

东北红豆杉植物群丛特点 Table 3 The character of Taxus cuspidata association"

编号
Number
群丛名称
Association
海拔
Altitude (m)
坡度
Slope
土壤水分
Soil humidity
分布林场
Forest farm
舞鹤草-五味子+狗枣猕猴桃-紫椴+臭冷杉群丛
Maianthemum bifolium-Schisandra chinensis+Actinidia kolomikta-Tilia amurensis+Abies nephrolepis
800-940 13°-24° 10%-25% 杜荒子林场
Duhuangzi Forest Farm
II 东北羊角芹-狗枣猕猴桃-臭冷杉群丛
Aegopodium alpestre-Actinidia kolomikta-Abies nephrolepis
745 20° 28% 马滴答林场
Madida Forest Farm
III 盾叶唐松草-狗枣猕猴桃-臭冷杉群丛
Thalictrum ichangense-Actinidia kolomikta-Abies nephrolepis
680-900 3°-27° 20%-40% 金钩岭林场、兰家、荒沟林场
Jingouling, Lanjia, and Huanggou Forest Farms
IV 舞鹤草-软枣猕猴桃-红松+紫椴+臭冷杉群丛
Maianthemum bifolium-Actinidia arguta-Pinus koraiensis + Tilia amurensis + Abies nephrolepis
970-1,200 10°-35° 12.6%-40% 和龙市荒沟林场
Helong Forest Farm
V 舞鹤草-软枣猕猴桃-紫椴+臭冷杉群丛
Maianthemum bifolium-Actinidia arguta-Tilia amurensis + Abies nephrolepis
800-890 25°-30° 15%-25% 和龙市荒沟林场
Helong Forest Farm

表4

东北红豆杉植物群丛物种组成"

群丛
Assoc
林分密度
Stand density
(inds./ha)
平均胸

Mean
DBH
(cm)
主要物种组成(重要值%)
Dominant species composition (Importance Value%)
乔木 Arbor 灌木 Shrub 草本 Herbage
I 2,446 11.45 臭冷杉 Abies nephrolepis (24.19) 五味子 Schisandra chinensis (25.01) 舞鹤草 Maianthemum bifolium (21.57)
紫椴 Tilia amurensis (16.23) 狗枣猕猴桃 Actinidia kolomikta (22.69) 丝引薹草 Carex remotiuscula (17.78)
髭脉槭 Acer barbinerve (10.03) 软枣猕猴桃 Actinidia arguta (13.09) 白花酢浆草 Oxalis acetosella (13.39)
硕桦 Betula costata (7.69) 长白忍冬 Lonicera ruprechtiana (11.95) 盾叶唐松草 Thalictrum ichangense (12.29)
东北红豆杉
Taxus cuspidata (7.68)
瘤枝卫矛 Euonymus verrucosus (9.71) 东北羊角芹 Aegopodium alpestre (11.46)
II 1,288 14.29 臭冷杉 Abies nephrolepis (29.72) 狗枣猕猴桃 Actinidia kolomikta (27.37) 东北羊角芹 Aegopodium alpestre (28.95)
紫椴 Tilia amurensis (13.11) 东北山梅花 Philadelphus schrenkii (22.03) 白花酢浆草 Oxalis acetosella (18.11)
紫花槭 Acer pseudosieboldianum (10.15) 栓翅卫矛 Euonymus phellomanus (14.66) 辽细辛 Asarum heterotropoides (11.73)
东北红豆杉 Taxus cuspidata (9.15) 五味子 Schisandra chinensis (11.84) 丝引薹草 Carex remotiuscula (10.49)
鱼鳞云杉 Picea jezoensis (8.35) 卫矛 Euonymus alatus (8.49) 稀羽鳞毛蕨 Dryopteris sparsa (8.29)
III 1,567 12.6 臭冷杉 Abies nephrolepis (25) 狗枣猕猴桃 Actinidia kolomikta (22.38) 盾叶唐松草 Thalictrum ichangense (20.75)
紫椴 Tilia amurensis (14.54) 东北溲疏 Deutzia parviflora (15.73) 东北羊角芹 Aegopodium alpestre (9.4)
髭脉槭 Acer barbinerve (10.54) 长白忍冬 Lonicera ruprechtiana (14.56) 白花酢浆草 Oxalis acetosella (8.04)
红松 Pinus koraiensis (8.65) 长白茶藨 Ribes komarovii (11.77) 稀羽鳞毛蕨 Dryopteris sparsa (7.59)
东北红豆杉 Taxus cuspidata (7.17) 刺五加 Acanthopanax senticosus (9.66) 舞鹤草 Maianthemum bifolium (6.57)
IV 1,520 12.49 花楷槭 Acer ukurunduense (18.4) 软枣猕猴桃 Actinidia arguta (50.74) 舞鹤草 Maianthemum bifolium (19.55)
臭冷杉 Abies nephrolepis (14.36) 刺五加 Acanthopanax senticosus (17.1) 华西龙头草 Meehania fargesii (11.58)
紫椴 Tilia amurensis (10.66) 狗枣猕猴桃 Actinidia kolomikta (9.26) 稀羽鳞毛蕨 Dryopteris sparsa (10.62)
红松 Pinus koraiensis (10.27) 卫矛 Euonymus alatus (7) 卵果蕨 Phegopteris connectilis (5.88)
东北红豆杉 Taxus cuspidata (9.05) 瘤枝卫矛 Euonymus verrucosus (5.37) 玉竹 Polygonatum odoratum (4.65)
V 1,278 11.93 臭冷杉 Abies nephrolepis (16.3) 软枣猕猴桃 Actinidia arguta (39.11) 舞鹤草 Maianthemum bifolium (17.31)
紫椴 Tilia amurensis (13.27) 瘤枝卫矛 Euonymus verrucosus (13.23) 东北蹄盖蕨 Athyrium brevifrons (12.4)
鱼鳞云杉 Picea jezoensis (12.41) 木通 Akebia quinata (10.57) 丝引薹草 Carex remotiuscula (11.46)
紫花槭 Acer pseudosieboldianum (11.57) 狗枣猕猴桃 Actinidia kolomikta (8.28) 宽叶薹草 Carex siderosticta (11.38)
东北红豆杉 Taxus cuspidata (10.7) 辽东楤木 Aralia elata (7.56) 白毛羊胡子草 Eriophorum vaginatum (9.8)

图2

东北红豆杉各群丛不同层次物种多样性。图中误差线代表的是标准误。群丛Ⅰ-V的含义同表3。"

表5

东北红豆杉不同群丛物种多样性指数差异"

群丛
Association
Menhinick丰富度指数
Menhinick richness index
Shannon-Wiener多样性指数
Shannon-Wiener diversity index
Pielou均匀度指数
Pielou evenness index
Simpson优势度指数
Simpson dominance index
0.521 ± 0.03 1.837 ± 0.018 0.783 ± 0.021 0.302 ± 0.02
II 0.419 2.117 0.842 0.202
III 0.686 ± 0.023 2.248 ± 0.051 0.804 ± 0.013 0.174 ± 0.019
IV 0.940 ± 0.162 2.149 ± 0.057 0.783 ± 0.02 0.236 ± 0.028
V 0.596 ± 0.069 2.356 ± 0.147 0.811 ± 0.013 0.198 ± 0.016
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