生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (2): 117-122.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019061

• 中国国家公园建设专题 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国国家公园体制改革: 回顾与前瞻

王毅1, 2, *(), 黄宝荣1   

  1. 1 中国科学院科技战略咨询研究院, 北京 100190
    2 中国科学院大学公共政策与管理学院, 北京 100049
  • 出版日期:2019-02-20
  • 通讯作者: 王毅 E-mail:wangyi@casipm.ac.cn

Institutional reform for building China’s national park system: Review and prospects

Wang Yi1, 2, *(), Huang Baorong1   

  1. 1 Institutes of Science and Development, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190
    2 School of Public Policy and Management, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Online:2019-02-20
  • Contact: Wang Yi E-mail:wangyi@casipm.ac.cn

自2013年提出建立国家公园体制, 我国国家公园体制改革已取得了重要进展, 成为整个生态文明体制改革任务中进展最快、成果最显著的综合性改革。过去5年, 通过国家公园体制改革试点, 初步完成了国家公园的顶层设计、明确了管理体制、启动了相关立法程序, 筑就了国家公园建设的基本框架。改革的主要经验可以总结为四个方面: 一是高层引领与改革创新, 二是试点先行和动态调整, 三是问题导向和顶层设计, 四是利益相关方参与和改善治理体系。然而, 未来国家公园体制建设仍然任重道远, 面临众多挑战和困难, 包括国家公园建设区通常人口众多、土地权属复杂、利益相关者众多、缺乏多方参与机制、地方管理能力薄弱等。今后, 应在总结国家公园体制改革经验的基础上, 坚持正确的改革取向, 进一步扩大开放和创新思维, 坚持法治优先、系统推进、分类指导、分阶段实施的基本原则, 采取顶层设计加试点先行的方式, 实现依法办园、科学办园、民主办园、开放办园; 加快推动国家公园和自然保护地立法, 建立国家公园现代化治理体系, 探索建立国家公园生态产品价值实现机制; 最终使以国家公园为主体的自然保护地体系得到整体保护, 人民利益得以最大化, 真正实现人与自然和谐发展。

关键词: 国家公园体制改革, 回顾与展望, 经验、问题与挑战, 建议

Since the concept of National Park in China was put forward in 2013, the institutional reform for building China’s national park system has made important progress and become the fastest and the most iconic comprehensive reform in the entire reform of the ecological civilization system. In the past five years, China has completed a top-down design, clarified a management system, initiated relevant legislative procedures, and built the basic framework for national park system through pilot programs. There are four important experiences in the institutional reform. The first is the combination of high-level leadership and system innovation. The second is pilot first followed by dynamic adjustment. The third is the problem oriented and top-down design. The fourth is encouraging stakeholder participation to improve governance system. Though progress has been made, the reform still faces many challenges and difficulties, and has a long way to go. National park potential construction areas often have large populations, complex land ownership patterns, numerous stakeholders, lack of multi-participation mechanisms, and weak local management capabilities. In the future, based on the experiences of institutional reform, we should insist on the correct reform orientation, further expand openness and innovate thinking, and follow the basic principles of system promotion, classification guidance, and phased implementation. We should combine top-down design with pilot programs, to establish national park system legally, scientifically, democratically and openly, to accelerate national park legislation, to establish a modern governance system, and to explore value realization mechanism of ecological products produced in national parks. In this way, the natural protected areas system with national parks as the backbone will be protected as a whole, the interests of the people will be maximized, and the harmonious development between man and nature will be realized.

Key words: institutional reform for national park, review and prospects, experience、problems and challenges, recommendations

表1

十个国家公园体制试点区人口分布情况"

试点区域
Pilot areas
乡镇数
Number of township
行政村数
Number of administrative villages
户数
Households
人口
Population (×104)
三江源 Three River Source 12 53 16,621 6.40
神农架 Shennongjia 8 - - 8.00
大熊猫 Giant Panda 160 - - 23.2
东北虎豹 Northeast Tiger Leopard 19 417 37,724 9.30
钱江源 Qianjiangyuan 4 19 - 0.97
武夷山 Wuyishan 5 25 - 3.00
南山 Nanshan 6 33 - 2.36
普达措 Potatso - - 429 0.23
祁连山 Qilianshan 53 256 - 8.80
长城 Great Wall - - 4,119 0.79
合计 Total - - - 63.05

表2

十个国家公园体制试点区土地所有权结构"

试点区域
Pilot areas
总面积
Total area (km2)
国有土地
Nation-owned land (%)
集体土地
Collective land (%)
三江源 Three River Source 123,100 100 0
神农架 Shennongjia 1,170 85.8 14.2
大熊猫 Giant Panda 27,134 - -
东北虎豹 Northeast Tiger Leopard 14,926 91.4 8.6
钱江源 Qianjiangyuan 252 20.4 79.6
武夷山 Wuyishan 982.59 28.74 71.3
南山 Nanshan 635.94 41.5 58.5
普达措 Potatso 300 78.1 21.9
祁连山 Qilianshan 50,200 - -
长城 Great Wall 59.91 50.61 49.39

表3

十个国家公园体制试点区中包含的各类保护地数量"

试点区域
Pilot areas
自然保护区
Nature reserves
风景名胜区
Scenic spots
森林公园
Forest parks
湿地公园
Wetland parks
地质公园
Geoparks
其他
Others
三江源 Three River Source 4 0 0 0 0 0
神农架 Shennongjia 2 1 1 1 1 0
大熊猫 Giant Panda 42 13 14 0 5 7
东北虎豹 Northeast Tiger Leopard 7 / 3 1 0 1
钱江源 Qianjiangyuan 1 1 1 0 0 0
武夷山 Wuyishan 1 1 1 0 0 1
南山 Nanshan 1 1 1 1 0 0
普达措 Potatso 1 1 0 0 0 1
祁连山 Qilianshan 3 0 4 1 0 0
长城 Great Wall 0 1 1 0 1 1
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