生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (12): 1583-1590.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2021364

• 国家重点保护野生植物专题 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国野生植物保护管理的政策、法律制度分析和建议

周志华1,*(), 金效华2   

  1. 1.国家林业和草原局野生动植物保护司, 北京 100714
    2.中国科学院植物研究所系统与进化植物学国家重点实验室, 北京 100093
  • 收稿日期:2021-09-09 接受日期:2021-12-01 出版日期:2021-12-20 发布日期:2021-12-08
  • 通讯作者: 周志华
  • 作者简介:*E-mail: citeszzh@sina.com

Analysis and suggestions on policies and regulations on conservation and management of wild plants in China

Zhihua Zhou1,*(), Xiaohua Jin2   

  1. 1 Department of Wildlife Conservation, National Forestry and Grassland Administration, Beijing 100714
    2 State Key Laboratory of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100093
  • Received:2021-09-09 Accepted:2021-12-01 Online:2021-12-20 Published:2021-12-08
  • Contact: Zhihua Zhou

摘要:

中国是全球生物多样性最丰富的国家之一。最近40年, 中国的植物多样性保护取得了巨大成就, 实施了多项政策和法律, 尤其是《野生植物保护条例》和《国家重点保护野生植物名录》先后颁布, 奠定了中国植物保护的法律和政策框架, 就地保护和迁地保护网络基本形成。但与生态文明建设的要求相比, 野生植物保护依然存在许多不足。本文系统回顾了中国野生植物保护管理的政策和法律制度, 从就地保护、迁地保护、开发利用活动管理三方面分析了其优缺点并提出建议; 重点对修订《野生植物保护条例》进行讨论并提出建议, 包括修订野生植物和人工培植的定义、优化对开发利用活动的管理程序、加强国际法和国内法的衔接、细化优化罚则等。

关键词: 国家重点保护野生植物, 保护政策, 法律制度, 《野生植物保护条例》, 修订建议

Abstract

Aims: China is the home to the world’s second-richest flora with approximately 36,000-41,000 species of higher plants. Plant conservation has reached great achievements in the last 40 years, especially with the publications of Regulation on Conservation of Wild Plants of China and the List of National Key Protected Wild Plants. These publications were issued by the central government two decades ago and recently have been amended with updates. Many national nature reserves and botanical gardens have been established to protect the national diversity of plant species, which formalized the in situ and ex situ conservation network. However, there are notable gaps between the conservation needs and the legitimate base in the new era of ecological civilization construction. This review surveys the achievements within botanical conservation and illustrates the gaps in policies and regulations on plant conservation in China. Congruently, we propose suggestions for revising the Regulation on Conservation of Wild Plants of China.
Methods: We summarized the current conservation and management policies on wild plants in China and analyzed the central policies and measures from three facets, e.g., in situ conservation, ex situ conservation, and management on exploitation and utilization. The advantages and disadvantages of these policies and regulations have been analyzed and compared with wild animal management. Furthermore, relevant suggestions to revise the Regulation on Conservation of Wild Plants of China have been provided.
Results: Our analyses indicated the revision of Regulation on Conservation of Wild Plants of China needs to be expedited to enhance in situ and ex situ conservation, including revising the definition of the term “wild plants” and “artificial propagation” to improve the management procedure for exploitation, to enhance the connection between international laws and domestic laws, and to refine the punishment rules.

Key words: national key protected wild plants, conservation policy, Regulation on Conservation of Wild Plants of China, revision suggestion