生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (10): 1425-1433.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2021131

• 综述 • 上一篇    

生物银行支撑全球生物多样性研究与保护的实践与探索

杨阳1,4, 张超2, 李保国3,*()   

  1. 1.中国科学院自然科学史研究所, 北京 100190
    2.中国科学院文献情报中心, 北京 100190
    3.西北大学生命科学学院, 西安 710069
    4.中国新高教集团政策与战略研究中心, 昆明 651701
  • 收稿日期:2021-04-09 接受日期:2021-06-11 出版日期:2021-10-20 发布日期:2021-10-20
  • 通讯作者: 李保国
  • 作者简介:* E-mail: baoguoli@nwu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:
    广东省科学院先导专项(2020GDASYL-20200301003)

Practice and exploration of global biodiversity research and protection supported by biobank

Yang Yang1,4, Chao Zhang2, Baoguo Li3,*()   

  1. 1 Institute for the History of Natural Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190
    2 National Science Library, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190
    3 College of Life Sciences, Northwest University, Xi'an 710069
    4 Policy and Strategic Research Center of China New Higher Education Group, Kunming 651701
  • Received:2021-04-09 Accepted:2021-06-11 Online:2021-10-20 Published:2021-10-20
  • Contact: Baoguo Li

摘要:

要更好地保护全球生物多样性, 人类不仅需要正确认知生物多样性的本质与规律, 还需要审时度势地发展生物多样性保护的载体, 以此提升生物多样性保护的社会价值和经济效益。本文旨在探讨生物银行对生物多样性研究与保护工作的促进作用, 解决生物银行资源库功能同质化严重、维护困难与急需向更高层次演化等三个主要问题。本文系统回顾了国内外生物银行的缘起与现状, 通过归纳与演绎的方法介绍了国内外人类基因组银行、动植物种质银行、生态银行与生物多样性银行的基本特征、运营模式与实践经验。本文的主要观点有: (1)不受时空限制的外向型数据驱动模式是人类基因组银行的主要特征, 本质是技术外包式的共性技术平台, 它的最主要的盈利方式是通过收集、存储人体生物样本, 并将其整理成为医学研究机构、制药企业、政府医疗部门需要的医学数据; (2)受特定时空限制的内向型需求驱动模式是动植物种质银行的主要特征, 它更聚焦代表性动植物及微生物的信息样本普查与测序, 并提倡在中试平台上进行早期小规模的实践活动; (3)自然资本与金融资本结合的发展模式是生态银行的最大特色, 它作为分散零碎的生态资源和产业投资商与运营商之间的中介平台, 把环境资源未破坏但缺乏驱动机制的区域进行人才、技术与资本的快速重组; (4)绑定实体金融机构与科研院所是生物多样性银行的最大特征, 它以第三方专业的授信与评级机构的形象出现, 其本质是通过环境破坏与环境治理、投入成本与产出收益两个维度的博弈获得两个高附加值的固定收益及增值收益。文章还提出了生物银行成为全球生物多样性研究与保护的重要载体的建议: (1)在建设层面要加强顶层设计, (2)在研究层面要理清知识产权权属, (3)在应用层面防止科技伦理的沦丧, (4)在管理层面要建立通用标准, (5)在产业层面要综合衍生品的设计。

关键词: 生物银行, 发展历史, 实践案例, 运营模式, 未来挑战, 政策建议

Abstract

Background & Aims: To better protect global biodiversity, humans need to correctly understand the nature and laws of biodiversity and to develop plans for biodiversity protection that are situational. Doing so will stimulate the social value and economic benefits of biodiversity protection. The purpose of this paper is to explore the role that biobank has placed in promoting biodiversity research and protection with a goal of solving the following three problems: serious homogenization of biobank resource pool function, difficult maintenance of biobank, and an urgent need to evolve to a higher level.
Progresses: We systematically reviewed the origins and current situation of biobank at home and abroad by conducting a literature survey on the basic characteristics, operation mode and practical experiences from the Human Genome Bank (HGB), the Animal and Plant Germplasm Bank, the Ecological Bank, and the Biodiversity Bank. The main feature of the HGB is the data-driven model that is not limited by time and space. The essence of HGB is the common technology platform useful for technology outsourcing. The main way the HGB profits is by collecting and storing human biological samples, and organizing them into medical data important for medical research institutions, pharmaceutical enterprises, and government medical departments. The main feature of the Animal and Plant Germplasm Bank is the introverted demand-driven mode with limitations in time and space. The Animal and Plant Germplasm Bank focuses more on the census and sequencing of representative animals, plant and microbial information samples, and advocates early small-scale practical activities in the pilot platform. The development mode of combining natural capital and financial capital is the biggest feature for the Ecological Bank. As a scattered and fragmented ecological resource and an intermediary platform between industrial investors and operators, the Ecological Bank rapidly reorganizes talents, technology and capital in areas where environmental resources are not destroyed but lack of driving mechanism. The biggest feature of the Biodiversity Bank is that they are bound to real financial institutions and scientific research institutions. The Biodiversity Bank appears as a third-party professional credit and rating agency. The goal of the Biodiversity Bank is to obtain a high value-added fixed income and value-added income from environmental damage and environmental governance.
Prospects: In order to become an important carrier of biodiversity research and protection, we recommend biobank make the following five actions: to strengthen the top-level design at the construction level, to clarify the ownership of intellectual property at the research level, to prevent the decline of science and technology ethics at the application level, to establish common standards at the management level, and to integrate the design of derivatives at the industrial level.

Key words: biobank types, development history, practice cases, operation modes, future challenges, policy suggestions