生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (9): 919-931.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019027

• 中国雪豹调查研究与保护专题 •    下一篇

“在哪里”和“有多少”? 中国雪豹调查与空缺

刘沿江1#, 李雪阳1#, 梁旭昶2, 刘炎林3, 程琛1, 14, 李娟4, 汤飘飘1, 齐惠元5, 卞晓星2, 何兵6, 邢睿7, 李晟1, 施小刚8, 杨创明9, 薛亚东10, 连新明11, 阿旺久美12, 谢然尼玛13, 宋大昭3, 肖凌云1, *(), 吕植1, *()   

  1. 1 北京大学生命科学学院, 北京 100871
    2 国际野生生物保护学会, 北京 100101
    3 中国猫科动物保护联盟, 北京 101121
    4 University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3114, USA
    5 Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan
    6 世界自然基金会, 北京 100037
    7 荒野新疆, 乌鲁木齐 830000
    8 四川卧龙国家级自然保护区, 四川汶川 623006
    9 四川贡嘎山国家级自然保护区, 四川甘孜 626000
    10 中国林业科学研究院森林生态环境与保护研究所, 北京 100091
    11 中国科学院西北高原生物研究所, 西宁 810008
    12 原上草自然保护中心, 西宁 810012
    13 治多县索加乡人民政府, 青海玉树 815400
    14 山水自然保护中心, 北京100871
  • 收稿日期:2019-01-31 接受日期:2019-09-16 出版日期:2019-09-20
  • 通讯作者: 肖凌云,吕植 E-mail:ly.xiao@pku.edu.cn;luzhi@pku.edu.cn

Where and How many? The status of snow leopard (Panthera uncia) density surveys and knowledge gaps in China

Yanjiang Liu1#, Xueyang Li1#, Xuchang Liang2, Yanlin Liu3, Chen Cheng1, 14, Juan Li4, Piaopiao Tang1, Huiyuan Qi5, Xiaoxing Bian2, Bing He6, Rui Xing7, Sheng Li1, Xiaogang Shi8, Chuangming Yang9, Yadong Xue10, Xinming Lian11, Awangjiumei 12, Xierannima 13, Dazhao Song3, Lingyun Xiao1, *(), Zhi Lü1, *()   

  1. 1 College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871
    2 Wildlife Conservation Society, Beijing 100101
    3 Chinese Felid Conversation Alliance, Beijing 101121
    4 University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3114, USA
    5 Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan
    6 World Wide Fund for Nature, Beijing 100037
    7 Wild Xinjiang, Urumqi 830000
    8 Wolong National Nature Reserve, Wenchuan, Sichuan 623006
    9 Gongga Mountain National Nature Reserve, Garzê, Sichuan 626000;
    10 Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091
    11 Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining 810008
    12 Plateau Nature Conservancy, Xining 810012
    13 People’s Government of Suojia Township, Zhiduo County, Yushu, Qinghai 815400
    14 Shan Shui Conservation Center, Beijing 100871
  • Received:2019-01-31 Accepted:2019-09-16 Online:2019-09-20
  • Contact: Xiao Lingyun,Lü Zhi E-mail:ly.xiao@pku.edu.cn;luzhi@pku.edu.cn

雪豹(Panthera uncia)分布广泛且调查难度较大, 全世界的雪豹研究面临的首要问题是雪豹基础数据的缺乏。本文通过检索1980至2018年已发表的含有中国境内雪豹分布和密度信息的中英文文章共35篇, 从中提取出雪豹的分布与密度信息, 其中含有密度估计的文献18篇。同时, 来自雪豹调查的15位一线成员通过填写表格和问卷的形式提供了28个地块上未发表的雪豹密度调查信息。基于此, 我们逐一分析了各省份已有的雪豹调查现状和存在的调查空缺, 发现雪豹分布调查的两大空白区域主要存在于与吉尔吉斯斯坦接壤的西天山地区和西藏南部的冈底斯-念青唐古拉山山脉和喜马拉雅山脉。相对我国雪豹栖息地总面积, 有过密度估算的面积仅占1.7%, 仍然处于刚刚起步的阶段, 并且已有的密度调查几乎都是在质量较好的雪豹栖息地内进行的。今后除了需要继续努力收集汇总已有的调查结果, 仍然需要在雪豹分布区(特别是空缺区域)内增加调查。

关键词: 雪豹, 中国, 分布, 密度, 空缺

The snow leopard (Panthera uncia) is widely distributed across remote and difficult-to-traverse terrains. Thus, the main obstacle to snow leopard research is the lack of baseline data. Here, we retrieved all articles published in either Chinese or English that studied snow leopards in China from 1980 to 2018, and from these we identified 35 papers that reported on the distribution or density of snow leopards in their results sections. Eighteen of these included a density estimation. Additionally, we obtained unpublished snow leopard density survey data from 28 different areas. On this basis, we assessed the status of snow leopard surveys and data-deficient areas in each province. We found that the two areas most lacking data for the snow leopard distribution surveys exist in the West Tianshan Mountains bordering Kyrgyzstan and the Gangdisi-Nyenchenthanglha Mountains and the Himalayas in southern Tibet. Relative to the total area of ​​China’s snow leopard habitat, density surveys still only cover a small fraction of their habitat (1.7%), so these aggregation efforts are far from complete. Finally, because existing density surveys tend to explore relatively good snow leopard habitats, we must continue to expand survey efforts, especially across data-deficient areas.

Key words: snow leopard, China, distribution, density, data-deficient areas

表1

各省区和全国雪豹密度调查覆盖面积及占雪豹栖息地百分比"

地区
Area
雪豹栖息地面积
Snow leopard habitat (km2)
密度调查覆盖面积
Density survey area (km2)
占雪豹栖息地百分比
Proportion of snow leopard habitat (%)
已发表密度调查文献数
Literatures published on density surveys
未发表密度调查数量
Unpublished density surveys
新疆 Xinjiang 476,398 2,315 0.49 9 5
内蒙古 Inner Mongolia 21,762 0 0 0 0
甘肃 Gansu 105,815 4,300 4.06 1 8
青海 Qinghai 330,768 14,680 4.44 5 8
西藏 Tibet 660,798 4,503 0.68 2 8
云南 Yunnan 15,756 0 0 0 0
四川 Sichuan 160,366 4,578 2.85 1 4
全国 China 1,771,662 29,934 1.69 18 28

图1

中国范围内雪豹分布与密度调查区域。其中甘肃省由于数据缺乏, 祁连山国家公园的调查范围仅为示意图。"

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