生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (9): 943-950.doi: 10.17520/biods.2019014

• 中国雪豹调查研究与保护专题 • 上一篇    下一篇

三江源地区雪豹保护优先区规划

肖凌云1#, 程琛1, 2#, 万华伟3, 张德海4, 王永财3, 才旦5, 侯鹏3, 李娟6, 杨欣7, 吕植1, *(), 刘玉平3, *()   

  1. 1 北京大学生命科学学院自然保护与社会发展研究中心, 北京 100871
    2 山水自然保护中心, 北京 100871
    3 生态环境部卫星环境应用中心, 北京 100094
    4 三江源国家公园管理局, 西宁 810001
    5 青海省玉树藏族自治州林业局, 青海玉树 815000
    6 Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3114, USA
    7 四川省绿色江河环境保护促进会, 成都 610041
  • 收稿日期:2019-01-18 接受日期:2019-05-23 出版日期:2019-09-20
  • 通讯作者: 吕植,刘玉平 E-mail:luzhi@pku.edu.cn;lyping3349@sina.com
  • 基金项目:
    国家重点研发计划(2018YFC0507200);高分重大科技专项(05-Y30B02-9001-13/15);国家青年科学基金(41801366)

Defining conservation priority areas of snow leopard habitat in the Sanjiangyuan Region

Lingyun Xiao1#, Chen Cheng1, 2#, Huawei Wan3, Dehai Zhang4, Yongcai Wang3, Tsedan 5, Peng Hou3, Juan Li6, Xin Yang7, Zhi Lü1, *(), Yuping Liu3, *()   

  1. 1 Center for Nature and Society, College of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871
    2 Shan Shui Conservation Center, Beijing 100871
    3 Center for Satellite Application on Ecology and Environment, Ministry of Ecology and Environment, Beijing 100094
    4 Management Bureau of the Three-River-Source National Park, Xining 810001
    5 Forestry Bureau of Yushu Prefecture, Yushu, Qinghai 815000
    6 Department of Environmental Science, Policy and Management, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3114, USA
    7 Sichuan Green River Environmental Protection Promotion Association, Chengdu 610041
  • Received:2019-01-18 Accepted:2019-05-23 Online:2019-09-20
  • Contact: Lü Zhi,Liu Yuping E-mail:luzhi@pku.edu.cn;lyping3349@sina.com

为了将有限资源合理投放到关键区域, 实现物种保护成效的最大化, 找出质量最好的栖息地及它们之间的迁徙通道是制定保护规划的第一步。本研究以三江源的雪豹(Panthera uncia)栖息地为对象, 基于野外调查数据和高分辨率卫星遥感数据, 利用物种分布模型、保护规划模型和连通度分析工具, 找出了三江源地区雪豹的核心栖息地分布和潜在迁徙通道位置, 分析了目前保护中的潜在威胁, 并提出了针对三江源西、中、东三块区域的不同保护对策。结果表明: (1)三江源西部核心栖息地比较小而破碎, 但迁徙通道较多且没有明显窄点, 未来应关注青藏线的潜在阻碍作用, 同时应防范道路沿线的野生动物盗猎; (2)中部区域横跨玉树-杂多-囊谦的雪豹栖息地是三江源最大的核心雪豹栖息地, 在连通其他种群中也处于中心地位, 应通过种群监测确定其健康稳定, 对开发、偷猎等威胁防微杜渐, 保持其源种群的作用; (3)东部区域人口密度高, 受人类活动的影响最大, 需保证阿尼玛卿、年保玉则两块核心栖息地的质量, 并重点监测甘德县境内的省道处雪豹的迁徙通道是否畅通。三江源地区雪豹栖息地总体质量较好, 建议将维持核心源种群的稳定性, 保持种群间迁徙通道的畅通作为三江源的雪豹景观保护工作的整体目标。未来应充分利用天地一体化监测手段, 开展重要保护物种栖息地状况的评估和预警, 尤其是非保护地区域物种核心栖息地的开发建设活动。

关键词: 雪豹, 栖息地, 高分辨率卫星, 保护优先区, 迁徙通道

To maximize species conservation outcomes and effectively allocate limited resources, the first step in conservation planning is to define conservation priority areas and migration pathways between them. Based on field survey and high-resolution satellite data, we used species distribution models, conservation planning tools and connectivity analysis tools to define the core habitat area and potential corridors for snow leopards (Panthera uncia) in the Sanjiangyuan Region. With potential threats identified, we proposed differentiated conservation strategies for different parts of the Sanjiangyuan Region: (1) In the western region, snow leopard core habitats are mostly small and fragmented but with widespread migration pathways and no obvious bottlenecks. However, the Qinghai-Tibet Railway is a potential barrier for snow leopard populations in the western region and needs further investigation. (2) The central region contains the largest core habitat which also has highest centrality in the connectivity analysis. To maintain the function of these source populations, we recommend long-term monitoring, anti-poaching patrol and supervision on development projects for this region. (3) For the eastern region, which has the highest human density, it is important to safeguard two core habitats (Anemaqen and Nanpo Yutze) and maintain the narrow corridors in between them. The provincial highway in Gande County may be a potential barrier for snow leopard migration and deserves further monitoring. As the epicenter for snow leopard conservation in China, the habitat quality in the Sanjiangyuan Region remains good overall. The goal of snow leopard landscape conservation in Sanjiangyuan should be to maintain core source populations while keeping migration routes unblocked. Integrated space-ground monitoring approaches should be implemented in the future for assessments and early warning signs of habitat degradation for these important protected species, especially in non-protected areas in core habitat at risk for development.

Key words: snow leopard, habitat, high-resolution satellite data, conservation priority, dispersal corridor

图1

三江源区域稀疏化后的220个雪豹出现位点"

图2

三江源区域各类型人类活动斑块(a)和道路(b)的分布。此次分析中主要关注人口密集地、能源设施、工矿用地、采石场和农村居民点这几种类型, 其中人口密集地包括城镇、机场和学校。道路被分为普通道路和高级道路两种大类, 其中高级道路包括高速公路、国道、省道和铁路。"

图3

三江源区域雪豹栖息地适宜度(a)和潜在栖息地分布(b)"

图4

三江源的雪豹栖息地质量优先度排序"

图5

加入人类影响前(黄色)后(绿色)雪豹核心栖息地的变化"

图6

雪豹核心栖息地的中心地位排序、连通度窄点(pinchpoint)和可能阻碍(高级道路)。A、B: 连接东部两个核心栖息地与中部核心栖息地的两条可能廊道。"

图7

国家级自然保护区与国家公园对雪豹核心栖息地的覆盖。开发项目基本存在于保护区与国家公园之外, 是未来需要重点监控开发风险的区域。"

1 Carbone C, Mace GM, Roberts SC, MacDonald DW ( 1999) Energetic constraints on the diet of terrestrial carnivores. Nature, 402, 286-288.
2 Cardillo M, Purvis A, Sechrest W, Gittleman JL, Bielby J, Mace GM ( 2004) Human population density and extinction risk in the world’s carnivores. PLoS Biology, 2, e197.
3 Cardillo M, Mace GM, Jones KE, Bielby J, Bininda-Emonds ORP, Sechrest W, Orme CDL, Purvis A ( 2005) Multiple causes of high extinction risk in large mammal species. Science, 309, 1239-1241.
4 Davis BW, Li G, Murphy WJ ( 2010) Supermatrix and species tree methods resolve phylogenetic relationships within the big cats, Panthera (Carnivora: Felidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 56, 64-76.
5 Deng T, Wang XM, Fortelius M, Li Q, Wang Y, Tseng ZJ, Takeuchi GT, Saylor JE, Säilä LK, Xie GP ( 2011) Out of Tibet: Pliocene woolly rhino suggests high-plateau origin of Ice Age megaherbivores. Science, 333, 1285-1288.
6 Editorial Committee of Ecological Environment of Sanjiangyuan Nature Reserve( 2002) Ecological Environment of Sanjiangyuan Nature Reserve. Qinghai People’s Publishing House, Xining. (in Chinese)
[ 《三江源自然保护区生态环境》编辑委员会( 2002) 三江源自然保护区生态环境.青海人民出版社, 西宁.]
7 Fick SE, Hijmans RJ ( 2017) WorldClim 2: New 1-km spatial resolution climate surfaces for global land areas. International Journal of Climatology, 37, 4302-4315.
8 Jackson RM, Mallon D, Sharma RK, Suryawanshi KS, Mishra C ( 2013) Snow Leopard Survival Strategy, Version 2013.1.Snow Leopard Network, Seattle, USA.
9 Lehtomäki J, Moilanen A ( 2013) Methods and workflow for spatial conservation prioritization using Zonation. Environmental Modelling & Software, 47, 128-137.
10 Manel S, Williams HC, Ormerod SJ ( 2001) Evaluating presence-absence models in ecology: The need to account for prevalence. Journal of Applied Ecology, 38, 921-931.
11 McCarthy TM, Chapron G ( 2003) Snow Leopard Survival Strategy. International Snow Leopard Trust and Snow Leopard Network, Seattle, USA.
12 McCarthy TM, Fuller TK, Munkhtsog B ( 2005) Movements and activities of snow leopards in southwestern Mongolia. Biological Conservation, 124, 527-537.
13 McCarthy T, Mallon D, Jackson R, Zahler P, McCarthy K ( 2017) Panthera uncia.The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017.
14 Moilanen A, Kujala H, Leathwick JR ( 2009) The Zonation framework and software for conservation prioritization. Spatial Conservation Prioritization, 135, 196-210.
15 Phillips SJ, Anderson RP, Schapire RE ( 2006) Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions. Ecological Modelling, 190, 231-259.
16 Ripple WJ, Estes JA, Beschta RL, Wilmers CC, Ritchie EG, Hebblewhite M, Berger J, Elmhagen B, Letnic M, Nelson MP, Schmitz OJ, Smith DW, Wallach AD, Wirsing AJ ( 2014) Status and ecological effects of the world’s largest carnivores. Science, 343, 1241484.
[1] 刘沿江, 李雪阳, 梁旭昶, 刘炎林, 程琛, 李娟, 汤飘飘, 齐惠元, 卞晓星, 何兵, 邢睿, 李晟, 施小刚, 杨创明, 薛亚东, 连新明, 阿旺久美, 谢然尼玛, 宋大昭, 肖凌云, 吕植. “在哪里”和“有多少”? 中国雪豹调查与空缺[J]. 生物多样性, 2019, 27(9): 919-931.
[2] 李小雨, 肖凌云, 梁旭昶, 程琛, 冯琛, 赵翔, 刘炎林, 卞晓星, 何兵, 张常智, Justine Shanti Alexander, 邢睿, 黄亚慧, 阿旺久美, 谢然尼玛, 宋大昭, 黄巧雯, 扎西桑俄, 彭奎, 尹杭, 连新明, 杨欣, 李晟, 施小刚, 杨创明, 吕植. 中国雪豹的威胁与保护现状[J]. 生物多样性, 2019, 27(9): 932-942.
[3] 陆琪,胡强,施小刚,金森龙,李晟,姚蒙. 基于分子宏条形码分析四川卧龙国家级自然保护区雪豹的食性[J]. 生物多样性, 2019, 27(9): 960-969.
[4] 陈星, 赵联军, 胡茜茜, 罗春平, 梁春平, 蒋仕伟, 梁磊, 郑维超, 官天培. 基于地形的牲畜空间利用特征及干扰评价——以王朗国家级自然保护区为例[J]. 生物多样性, 2019, 27(6): 630-637.
[5] 丁晨晨, 胡一鸣, 李春旺, 蒋志刚. 印度野牛在中国的分布及其栖息地适宜性分析[J]. 生物多样性, 2018, 26(9): 951-961.
[6] 武晓宇, 董世魁, 刘世梁, 刘全儒, 韩雨晖, 张晓蕾, 苏旭坤, 赵海迪, 冯憬. 基于MaxEnt模型的三江源区草地濒危保护植物热点区识别[J]. 生物多样性, 2018, 26(2): 138-148.
[7] 卜倩婷, 李献, 朱仁, 储玲, 严云志. 低头坝驱动山区溪流局域栖息地和鱼类群落的同质化[J]. 生物多样性, 2017, 25(8): 830-839.
[8] 谢宗强, 申国珍, 周友兵, 樊大勇, 徐文婷, 高贤明, 杜彦君, 熊高明, 赵常明, 祝燕, 赖江山. 神农架世界自然遗产地的全球突出普遍价值及其保护[J]. 生物多样性, 2017, 25(5): 490-497.
[9] 王翠玲, 臧振华, 邱月, 邓舒雨, 冯朝阳, 谢宗强, 徐文婷, 刘蕾, 陈全胜, 申国珍. 湖北神农架国家级自然保护区森林和川金丝猴栖息地的保护成效[J]. 生物多样性, 2017, 25(5): 504-512.
[10] 周晓, 陈东东, StephenW.Kress, 陈水华. 海鸟种群的人工招引与恢复技术及其应用[J]. 生物多样性, 2017, 25(4): 364-371.
[11] 唐卓, 杨建, 刘雪华, 王鹏彦, 李周园. 基于红外相机技术对四川卧龙国家级自然保护区 雪豹(Panthera uncia)的研究[J]. 生物多样性, 2017, 25(1): 62-70.
[12] 张雪梅, 韩徐芳, 刘立伟, 徐爱春. 舟山群岛蝶类群落嵌套分布格局及其影响因素[J]. 生物多样性, 2016, 24(3): 321-331.
[13] 徐爱春, 斯幸峰, 王彦平, 丁平. 千岛湖片段化栖息地地栖哺乳动物的红外相机监测及最小监测时长[J]. 生物多样性, 2014, 22(6): 764-772.
[14] 任宗昕, 王红, 罗毅波. 兰科植物欺骗性传粉[J]. 生物多样性, 2012, 20(3): 270-279.
[15] 孙吉吉, 王思宇, 王彦平, 邵德钰, 丁平. 千岛湖栖息地片段化效应对鸟类巢捕食风险的影响[J]. 生物多样性, 2011, 19(5): 528-534.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed