生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (10): 1112-1121.doi: 10.17520/biods.2018321

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

珠江河口区大型底栖动物群落结构

周细平1, 2, *(), 李贞1, 吴培芳1, 吴茜1, 陈逸欣1, 刘康格1, 刘东艳3, 王玉珏4, 王跃启4   

  1. 1 厦门大学嘉庚学院环境科学与工程学院, 福建漳州 363105
    2 厦门大学嘉庚学院河口生态安全与环境健康福建省高校重点实验室, 福建漳州 363105
    3 华东师范大学河口与海岸学国家重点实验室, 上海 200062
    4 中国科学院海岸带环境过程与生态修复重点实验室, 山东烟台 264003
  • 收稿日期:2019-09-20 接受日期:2019-10-13 出版日期:2019-10-20
  • 通讯作者: 周细平 E-mail:zoeyzhou@xujc.com
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(41606119);福建省自然科学基金(2017J05068);福建省高等学校新世纪优秀人才支持计划(闽教科〔2017〕52号)

The structure of macrobenthic community in Pearl River Estuary

Zhou Xiping1, 2, *(), Li Zhen1, Wu Peifang1, Wu Xi1, Chen Yixin1, Liu Kangge1, Liu Dongyan3, Wang Yujue4, Wang Yueqi4   

  1. 1 School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tan Kah Kee College, Xiamen University, Zhangzhou, Fujian 363105
    2 Key Laboratory of Estuarine Ecological Security and Environmental Health, Tan Kah Kee College, Xiamen University, Zhangzhou, Fujian 363105
    3 State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and Coastal Research, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062
    4 Key Laboratory of Coastal Environmental Processes and Ecological Remediation, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai, Shandong 264003
  • Received:2019-09-20 Accepted:2019-10-13 Online:2019-10-20
  • Contact: Zhou Xiping E-mail:zoeyzhou@xujc.com

河口区大型底栖动物具有的重要群落特征往往可以反映群落所经历的环境污染。为更好地了解珠江河口区大型底栖动物群落结构, 作者于2014年11月至2015年8月进行了4个季度的大型底栖动物调查, 并利用PRIMER 6.0软件进行群落生物多样性指数计算、群落等级聚类(Cluster)和非度量多维标度排序(nMDS)分析。研究结果显示: 珠江河口区共获得大型底栖动物52种, 优势种包括光滑河篮蛤(Potamocorbula laevis)、中国绿螂(Glaucomya chinensis)、焦河篮蛤(Potamocorbula ustulata)和羽须鳃沙蚕(Dendroneris pinnaticirrus)。大型底栖动物年平均密度为269.3 ind./m 2, 年平均生物量为129.61 g/m 2。12个站次的丰富度指数(D)、均匀度指数(J')和Shannon-Wiener多样性指数(H')平均值分别为1.81 ± 1.38、0.50 ± 0.27和1.60 ± 1.13。该结果显示除P01断面的秋季和冬季环境质量为优良外, 其他站位在不同季度都显示出轻度到重度的污染。Cluster聚类分析和nMDS标序结果表明, P01断面与P02和P03断面群落相似度较低, 与断面地理分布情况一致; P02断面和P03断面存在交叉聚集, 群落相似度较高。结合环境因子结果可知, 沉积物理化因子与群落分布特征相关性较大, 其中最能解释珠江河口区群落多样性分布特征的环境因子为盐度和pH值。

关键词: 珠江口, 大型底栖动物, 群落结构

The macrobenthic communities of estuaries are often indicative of important community traits, such as the environmental pollution a community may experience. To better understand the structure of Pearl River Estuary’s macrobenthic community, macrobenthic species were identified based on investigations carried out from November 2014 to August 2015, and biodiversity analyses were performed. More specifically, biodiversity index calculations, cluster analysis, and nMDS (non-metric MDS) analysis were performed used PRIMER 6.0 software. While 52 macrobenthic species were identified in the Pearl River estuary, the dominant species in this study area were Potamocorbula laevis, Glaucomya chinensis, Potamocorbula ustulata and Dendroneris pinnaticirrus. The annual mean density of macrobenthos in the Pearl River Estuary was 269.3 ind./m 2 and the annual mean biomass was 129.61 g/m 2. The mean values of richness index (D), evenness index (J') and Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H') of 12 samplings were 1.81 ± 1.38、0.50 ± 0.27 and 1.60 ± 1.13, respectively. The results showed a range of environmental quality from clean to severe pollution, in which only P01 section indicated clean environmental quality in autumn and winter. Cluster and nMDS results revealed that low community similarity were observed among P01 section and P02 together with P03 sections, potentially due to the geographical distribution factors. Additionally, the P02 section and P03 section gathered crosswise with higher community similarity. Our results suggested the combination of environmental factors with physical and chemical sediment factors were significantly correlated with the distribution characteristics of communities. Also to note, water salinity and pH can help explain the biodiversity distribution pattern of the microbenthic community in the Pearl River Estuary.

Key words: Pearl River Estuary, macrobenthos, community structure

图1

珠江口大型底栖动物站位图(左图仿黄洪辉等, 2002)"

表1

珠江河口区各断面环境因素"

P01 P02 P03
高潮区
High tide
中潮区
Middle tide
低潮区
Low tide
高潮区
High tide
中潮区
Middle tide
低潮区
Low tide
高潮区
High tide
中潮区
Middle tide
低潮区
Low tide
粘土 Clay (%) 2.15 2.79 4.01 1.27 4.85 8.61 1.26 4.25 0.28
粉砂 Silt (%) 18.06 21.65 28.47 15.51 50.95 76.36 18.73 48.59 3.13
极细砂 Sand (%) 79.79 75.56 67.52 83.22 44.20 15.03 80.01 47.16 96.59
总氮 TN (%) 0.23 0.04 0.02 0.03 0.05 0.05
总有机碳 TOC (%) 1.83 0.37 0.22 0.21 0.60 0.70
温度 Temperature (℃) 24.23 24.50 23.87
盐度 Salinity (‰) 10.13 10.43 9.47
pH值 8.07 7.71 7.78

表2

珠江河口区4个季度优势种及其优势度值(Y)"

种类 Species 春季 Spring 夏季 Summer 秋季 Autumn 冬季 Winter
环节动物 Annelida
羽须鳃沙蚕 Dendroneris pinnaticirrus - - - 0.022
软体动物 Mollusca
光滑河篮蛤 Potamocorbula laevis 0.512 0.143 0.326 0.603
中国绿螂 Glaucomya chinensis 0.067 0.128 0.020 0.031
焦河篮蛤 Potamocorbula ustulata - - - 0.020

图2

珠江河口区大型底栖动物密度(平均值 + 标准差)的时空变化"

图3

大型底栖动物生物量(平均值 + 标准差)的时空变化"

表3

珠江河口区4个季度大型底栖动物群落的物种多样性指数"

站次
Samplings
物种数
Species
number
密度
Density
(ind./m2)
生物量
Biomass
(g/m2)
丰富度指数
Richness
index (D)
均匀度指数
Evenness
index (J')
Shannon-Wiener多样性指数
Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H')
P01
秋季 Autumn 19 183.1 89.47 3.92 0.80 3.39
冬季 Winter 14 113.8 45.69 3.18 0.81 3.09
春季 Spring 17 193.8 78.05 3.41 0.64 2.60
夏季 Summer 10 188.4 79.04 1.95 0.62 2.06
P02
秋季 Autumn 19 515.6 236.83 3.17 0.31 1.30
冬季 Winter 4 190.2 53.15 0.64 0.21 0.42
春季 Spring 4 391.1 100.12 0.56 0.54 1.08
夏季 Summer 4 236.4 63.18 0.61 0.51 1.02
P03
秋季 Autumn 7 446.2 222.87 0.92 0.40 1.03
冬季 Winter 4 469.3 323.93 0.54 0.22 0.45
春季 Spring 2 279.1 254.66 0.20 0.06 0.06
夏季 Summer 8 24.9 8.27 2.65 0.90 2.69
平均值 ± 标准差 Mean ± SD 9.3 ± 6.3 269.3 ± 153.1 129.61 ± 101.49 1.81 ± 1.38 0.50 ± 0.27 1.60 ± 1.13

表4

生物多样性指数与环境因子的Pearson相关分析"

物种数
Species number
密度
Density
生物量
Biomass
丰富度指数
Richness index (D)
均匀度指数
Evenness index (J')
Shannon-Wiener多样性指数
Shannon-Wiener index (H')
总有机碳 Total organic carbon (%) 0.703 0.233 0.486 0.716 0.447 0.682
总氮 Total nitrogen (%) 0.757 0.285 0.440 0.803 0.352 0.720
粘土 Clay (%) -0.247 0.215 0.496 -0.053 -0.459 -0.104
粉砂 Silt (%) -0.502 0.207 0.494 -0.317 -0.482 -0.369
极细砂 Sand (%) 0.483 -0.208 -0.496 0.296 0.482 0.347
温度 Temperature (℃) 0.080 0.504 -0.053 0.119 0.305 0.185
盐度 Salinity (‰) 0.623* 0.483 -0.051 0.577* 0.163 0.366
pH 0.958** -0.179 0.015 0.272 0.023 0.144

图4

珠江河口区4个季度大型底栖动物的聚类分析"

图5

珠江河口区4个季度大型底栖动物nMDS标序分析"

表5

珠江河口区大型底栖动物物种数、密度和生物量的历史与现状比较"

调查年份
Investigation year
物种数
Species number
春季密度
Density in spring
(ind./m2)
夏季密度
Density in summer
(ind./m2)
春季生物量
Biomass in spring
(g/m2)
夏季生物量
Biomass in summer
(g/m2)
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2008 293 251.7 215.0 27.15 38.91 Mao et al, 2011
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2009 40 ** ** ** ** Huang et al, 2011
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