生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (3): 273-285.doi: 10.17520/biods.2018258

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

西双版纳热带雨林林窗空间分布格局及其特征数与林窗下植物多样性的相关性

李强1, 王彬1, 邓云2, 林露湘2, 达佤扎喜1, 张志明1, *()   

  1. 1 云南大学生态学与环境学院暨云南省高原山地生态与退化环境修复重点实验室, 昆明 650091
    2 中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园热带森林生态学重点实验室, 云南勐腊 666303
  • 收稿日期:2018-09-25 接受日期:2019-01-16 出版日期:2019-03-20
  • 通讯作者: 张志明 E-mail:zhiming_zhang76@hotmail.com
  • 基金项目:
    国家重点研发计划(2016YFC120110);国家重点研发计划(2016YFC0500202);国家自然科学基金(41761040)

Correlation between spatial distribution of forest canopy gaps and plant diversity indices in Xishuangbanna tropical forests

Li Qiang1, Wang Bin1, Deng Yun2, Lin Luxiang2, Dawa Zhaxi1, Zhang Zhiming1, *()   

  1. 1 School of Ecology and Environmental Sciences & Yunnan Key Laboratory for Plateau Mountain Ecology and Restoration of Degraded Environments, Yunnan University, Kunming 650091;
    2 CAS Key Laboratory of Tropical Forest Ecology, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Mengla, Yunnan 666303
  • Received:2018-09-25 Accepted:2019-01-16 Online:2019-03-20
  • Contact: Zhang Zhiming E-mail:zhiming_zhang76@hotmail.com

林窗作为森林群落中一种重要的干扰方式, 对林下物种构成有着重要的影响。开展林窗空间格局及其特征指数与林下植物多样性关系研究对于探讨林窗对林下生物多样性的影响有重要意义, 有助于进一步了解群落动态, 在物种多样性保护方面也具有指导作用。本研究在西双版纳热带雨林地区随机选取3块大小为1 ha的热带雨林为研究样地, 采用轻小型六旋翼无人机搭载Sony ILCE-A7r可见光传感器, 分别获取各个样地的高清数字影像, 结合数字表面高程模型以及各个样地的地形数据用以确定各样区的林窗分布格局, 并进一步提取出各林窗的景观格局指数。结合地面样方基础调查数据, 对各样地各林窗下植物多样性情况进行统计, 旨在分析热带雨林林窗空间分布格局以及林窗下植物多样性对各林窗空间格局特征的响应情况。研究表明, 西双版纳州热带雨林林窗呈大而分散的空间分布, 林窗空间格局特征指数如林窗形状复杂性指数、林窗面积都与林下植物多样性呈显著正相关关系。在面积小的林窗下, 较之林窗形状复杂性因子, 林窗面积大小对林下植物多样性影响更显著; 在面积达到一定程度后, 相对于面积因子, 林窗形状复杂性指数对林下植物多样性影响更显著, 各样地林窗皆趋于向各自所处样地顶极群落发展。

关键词: 林窗, 景观分布格局, 植物多样性, 景观指数, 近地面遥感, 无人机

Forest gaps are an important disturbance in forest communities and impact the composition of understory species. The research on the relationship between the spatial patterns of forest canopy gap and diversity indices of understory plants is of great significance to understand the impcat between forest canopy gap and the biodiversity of understory plants. This will help to further understand community dynamics and also protect species diversity. In this study, three tropical rainforests with a size of one hectare were randomly selected in the Xishuangbanna tropical rain forest. A light and small six-rotor UAs was mounted with a Sony ILCE-A7r visible light sensor to obtain high-definition digital images of each plot. Digital surface elevation models and the topographic data of each plot were used to determine the distribution type of canopy gaps in each plot and to extract landscape pattern indices. Based on ground-based survey data, a statistical survey of plant diversity under each forest canopy gap was carried out to analyze the relationship between the spatial distribution of forest gaps and plant diversity. Results show that the tropical rain forest gaps in Xishuangbanna are large and have a scattered spatial distribution. The spatial characteristics indices, such as the shape and complexity index, and the area were significantly positively correlated with the diversity of understory plants. The size of the forest canopy gap had a more significant impact on the plant diversity than the shape. After the area reaches a certain level, the shape and complexity index of the gap is relative to the area factor. The impact on diversity of understory plants is more severe, and all forest gaps tend to recover from the top communities in their respective plots.

Key words: canopy gap, landscape spatial pattern, plant diversity, landscape pattern metrics, near-surface remote sensing, UAV

图1

研究区概况图。图中各颜色边框均为样地内1 ha范围, 且各颜色对应作图各采样点位置。"

图2

4个样地的林窗分布图"

表1

4个样地的林窗数据"

44 km样地
44 km plot
茶厂后山样地
Tea factory backhill plot
勐仑水库样地
Menglun Reservoir plot
大平掌样地
Dapingzhang plot
大林窗数 Large gap number 13 9 12 21
小林窗数 Small gap number 27 18 14 32
林窗数 Gap number 40 27 26 53
最大林窗面积 Largest gap area (m2) 294.26 121.78 266.42 160.53
最小林窗面积 Smallest gap area (m2) 4.1 4.64 4.17 4.2
林窗总面积 Total area of gap (m2) 1,208.72 600.00 1,286.91 1,640.25
林窗空隙率 Gap fraction 12.10% 6% 12.85% 16.40%

表2

4个样地的林窗空间特征指数"

44 km样地
44 km plot
茶厂后山样地
Tea factory backhill plot
勐仑水库样地
Menglun Reservoir plot
大平掌样地
Dapingzhang plot
数量比例
Quantity ratio
小林窗 Small gap 67.50% 66.70% 53.80% 60.40%
大林窗 Large gap 32.50% 33.30% 46.20% 39.60%
面积比例
Area ratio
小林窗 Small gap 24% 30.10% 14.10% 23.30%
大林窗 Large gap 76% 69.90% 85.90% 76.70%
空隙率
Gap fraction
小林窗 Small gap 2.90% 1.80% 1.81% 3.80%
大林窗 Large gap 9.20% 4.20% 11.05% 12.60%
平均最小邻近距离
Mean Euclidean near-
neighbor distance (ENN)
林窗 Gap 10.80 10.02 11.11 8.49
小林窗 Small gap 11.45 9.74 16.28 9.57
大林窗 Large gap 17.16 17.89 18.82 14.18

图3

4个样地的林窗形状指数和面积空间分布。44 km: 44 km样地; CC: 茶厂后山样地; DPZ: 大平掌样地; SK: 勐仑水库样地。"

表3

热带雨林和常绿阔叶林样地的林窗数量、面积及其比例"

分类面积 Classified by area (m2) 林窗数量 No. of gaps 数量百分比 % 面积 Area (m2) 面积百分比 %
热带雨林 Tropical forest
4-25 59 63.44 648.99 20.96
25-50 19 20.43 588.53 19.01
50-100 8 8.60 541.68 17.50
100-200 4 4.30 523.73 16.92
200-400 3 3.23 792.7 25.61
合计 Total 93 100 3,095.63 100
常绿阔叶林 Evergreen broad-leaved forest
4-25 32 60.38 382.3 23.31
25-50 10 18.87 375.9 22.92
50-100 9 16.98 599.19 36.53
100-200 2 3.77 282.81 17.24
200-400 0 0 0 0
合计 Total 53 100.00 1,640.2 100.00

图4

4个样地林窗下与林下植物的个体数和种数(样地代号同图3)"

表4

4个样地林窗下植物的多样性指数"

样地
Samples
物种丰富度 Species richness Shannon-Wiener指数 Shannon-Wiener index Simpson指数 Simpson index
最大值 Max. 均值 Mean 最大值 Max. 均值 Mean 最大值 Max. 均值 Mean
44 km 145 10.35 3.3698 1.2404 0.959 0.5742
茶厂后山样地 CC 67 10.8519 3.0483 1.7553 0.9417 0.7731
大平掌样地 DPZ 34 3.1132 2.8178 0.5582 0.9291 0.2868
勐仑水库样地 SK 164 28.2692 3.0656 1.8432 0.9452 0.7233

图5

物种丰富度与林窗面积线性关系图(样地代号同图3)"

图6

热带雨林样地中Shannon-Wiener指数与林窗面积的线性关系图"

图7

热带雨林林窗下植物物种丰富度与林窗形状复杂性指数(MSI)的线性关系图(样地代号同图3)"

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