生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (3): 339-346.doi: 10.17520/biods.2018240

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《生物多样性公约》企业与生物多样性全球平台的发展情况及对中国的政策建议

赵阳1, 温源远1, 2, *()   

  1. 1 生态环境部环境保护对外合作中心, 北京 100035
    2 北京师范大学环境学院, 北京 100875
  • 收稿日期:2018-09-06 接受日期:2018-10-18 出版日期:2019-03-20
  • 通讯作者: 温源远 E-mail:wen.yuanyuan@mepfeco.org.cn

Development of Convention on Biological Diversity’s Global Platform for Business & Biodiversity: Policy suggestion for China

Zhao Yang1, Wen Yuanyuan1, 2, *()   

  1. 1 Foreign Economic Corporation Office, Ministry of Ecology and Environment of People’s Republic of China, Beijing 100035;
    2 School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875
  • Received:2018-09-06 Accepted:2018-10-18 Online:2019-03-20
  • Contact: Wen Yuanyuan E-mail:wen.yuanyuan@mepfeco.org.cn

《生物多样性公约》(以下简称《公约》)是国际社会协力保护生物多样性最主要的公约, 也是中国参与和引领全球生态文明建设的重要平台。《公约》一直不断推动企业参与生物多样性保护的相关工作和国际体系建设。该国际体系主要包括两大支柱: 一是“企业与生物多样性全球伙伴关系”国际机制(Global Partnership on Business and Biodiversity, 以下简称GPBB机制); 二是“企业与生物多样性全球伙伴关系”资源平台(Global Platform for Business and Biodiversity, 以下简称GPBB平台)。前者是工作组织和资金机制, 后者是前者的技术支持和保障机制, 二者相辅相成, 协同增效。总体来看, 自1996年《公约》第三次缔约方大会(COP-3)以来, GPBB平台的相关概念和机制不断发展完善, 至今已形成了一个GPBB平台在线数据库, 可为我国推进相关工作提供技术支撑。通过梳理总结GPBB平台及其相关机制等的发展情况, 得出: (1)企业参与生物多样性保护的意愿及对GPBB平台的需求日益增强; (2)《公约》对企业参与的要求更加明确; (3)《公约》对如何促进企业参与生物多样性的路线图更加清晰; (4) GPBB机制已基本建立; (5) GPBB平台已基本完善。展望未来, GPBB平台发展将有望继续保持以下三大趋势: (1)平台建设力度将不断加强; (2)平台的影响将不断提升; (3)平台发展将向重点部门倾斜。目前, GPBB平台可提供相关最新研究成果、方法学、工具、自愿性标准和指引、简报、最佳实践案例等免费信息, 以及一系列项目实施过程中的企业参与机会, 以支持企业在决策和运营中纳入生物多样性, 并鼓励支持各国政府、企业、非政府组织和学术科研机构等多利益相关方共同参与、贡献与受益。中国自2015年正式加入GPBB机制后, 对各成员国的企业参与倡议开展了较为深入的研究, 为成立发起“中国企业与生物多样性伙伴关系”(CBBP)联盟倡议做出有益探索。但总体而言, 对GPBB平台的研究借鉴以及参与建设还有很多工作可做。我们建议: (1)在制度贡献方面, 应加强政策研究, 研提COP-15企业参与新决议草案; (2)在机制建设方面, 积极参与和逐渐引领GPBB机制建设, 协力支撑一带一路等中国倡议; (3)在人员保障方面, 加强人才队伍建设, 提升引领能力; (4)在GPBB平台方面, 加强研究借鉴和技术参与, 为GPBB平台建设提供技术支持。

关键词: 生物多样性保护, 国际经验, 全球伙伴关系, 生物多样性公约, 企业参与

The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) is the most important international convention committed to the protection of biodiversity. It is also the most significant platform for China to participate and lead in the construction of a global ecological civilization. As an important entity for enterprises engaging in biodiversity conservation, the CBD has been strengthening efforts to build a consistent international system over the last two decades. The international system consists of two main pillars: (1) Global Partnership on Business and Biodiversity (GPBB mechanism), and (2) Global Platform for Business & Biodiversity (GPBB platform). The GPBB mechanism provides the organization and financial arrangement, while the GPBB platform mainly provides technical and intellectual support. These two pillars complement and provide synergies to one other. By looking into the formation background, development process, current situation and future trends of the GPBB platform, this paper systematically summarizes various resources that have been intentionally made available by the GPBB platform gradually over a long period of time. It also puts forward relevant policy recommendations for China in how to better participate in, contribute to and benefit from the CBD. Since COP-3 in 1996, related concepts, methodologies, and mechanisms have been continuously built up and made publicly available through an online database of the current GPBB platform through the official website of the Convention. These resources can be used by governments and enterprises of all countries, and China should increase its application of the resources available. Based on our research, we came to the following conclusions: (1) Willingness of enterprises to participate in biodiversity conservation and the demand for the GPBB platforms is growing; (2) CBD’s requirements for enterprise participation are explicit; (3) Roadmap on how to promote business engagement in biodiversity protection is straightforward; (4) GPBB mechanism allowing national governments to become members has already been established; and (5) GPBB platform as resource bank has been greatly substantiated. Looking forward to the future, the development of GPBB platforms is expected to continue maintaining the following three momentums: (1) GPBB platform will be continuously improved; (2) The impact will be further strengthened; and (3) More significant sectors will be highlighted. The GPBB platform has provided opportunities for enterprises to implement a range of CBD projects and promoted up-to-date information dissemination on latest research findings, methodology, technical tools, voluntary standards, guidelines, briefings and business best practices. It has also supported inputs and contributions from GPBB members of national governments, corporations, NGOs, academic researchers and other institutional stakeholders. China formally joined the GPBB in 2015 and carried out an in-depth study on GPBB and membership countries. A national initiative of China Business & Biodiversity Partnership (CBBP) is in progress, however in general, there is still much work to do. The paper makes the following suggestions: (1) China should introduce new draft resolutions to further strengthen the international system in COP-15 based on improved policy research; (2) China should be active in and gradually lead the GPBB development; (3) Capacity building in human resources is needed to make the CBBP stand out in the GPBB; and (4) Draw on the GPBB platform to better benefit from and contribute to it.

Key words: biodiversity conservation, international experience, global partnership, Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), business participation

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