生物多样性 ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (11): 1236-1242.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018230

• 保护论坛 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国野生大型真菌受威胁程度评估、问题和对策

刘冬梅1, 蔡蕾4, 王科2,3, 李俊生1,*(), 魏铁铮2, 姚一建2,*()   

  1. 1 中国环境科学研究院国家环境保护区域生态过程与功能评估重点实验室, 北京 100012
    2 中国科学院微生物研究所真菌学国家重点实验室, 北京 100101
    3 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
    4 生态环境部自然生态保护司, 北京 100035
  • 收稿日期:2018-08-24 接受日期:2018-10-23 出版日期:2018-11-20 发布日期:2019-01-08
  • 通讯作者: 李俊生,姚一建
  • 作者简介:

    # 共同第一作者

  • 基金资助:
    环境保护部生物多样性保护专项(2096001006)

Threat assessments, problems and countermeasures of China’s macrofungi

Dongmei Liu1, Lei Cai4, Ke Wang2,3, Junsheng Li1,*(), Tiezheng Wei2, Yijian Yao2,*()   

  1. 1 State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Regional Eco-process and Function Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
    2 State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
    3 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
    4 Department of Nature and Ecology Conservation, Ministry of Ecology and Environment, Beijing 100035
  • Received:2018-08-24 Accepted:2018-10-23 Online:2018-11-20 Published:2019-01-08
  • Contact: Li Junsheng,Yao Yijian
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

摘要:

红色名录是制定科学、有效的物种保护战略与行动计划的基础和依据。自2000年起, 中国菌物学者开始探索真菌红色名录的制定, 包括采用IUCN评估等级和标准对中国大型真菌受威胁状况进行初步评估, 但与国际上采用的IUCN标准并未完全接轨, 且评估的物种数量少, 所涉及的地理范围较为狭窄, 难以反映中国大型真菌的整体受威胁状况。我们组织全国140余位真菌专家, 采用IUCN评估等级和标准对我国已知的227科1,298属9,302种大型真菌的受威胁状况进行了评估, 结果发现97种大型真菌处于受威胁状态, 并编制了首个国家范围的“中国大型真菌红色名录”。本文基于该评估结果, 并结合中国大型真菌保护现状, 针对存在的主要问题与挑战, 建议从5个方面加强对大型真菌的保护: (1)健全法律法规和政策体系; (2)完善就地保护体系, 提升迁地保护能力; (3)深入开展野外调查, 构建监测网络; (4)加强大型真菌的科普教育, 提高公众保护意识; (5)加大资金投入, 提升科技支撑能力。

关键词: 大型真菌, 红色名录, 受威胁评估, 保护对策

Abstract:

The IUCN red list assessment lays the foundation for developing effective conservation strategies and action plan for biological species based on sound science. Since 2000, Chinese mycologists have assessed the threat status of macrofungi in China by using methods that incorporated but did not fully integrate IUCN categories and criteria. Because the number of species evaluated was limited and the geographical coverages were often relatively narrow, those assessments did not accurately reflect the overall status of Chinese macrofungi. To correct this gap, a nationwide Red List assessment of macrofungi was organized and the first national Red List of 9,302 species in 1,298 genera and 227 families was announced recently. More than 140 experts throughout the country took parts in the assessment. The results showed that 97 species of macrofungi were threatened. Based on the assessment results, combined with the current status of the conservation of macrofungi in China, five major measures were suggested to strengthen the conservation of these fungi: (1) Enforce the legislation of laws, speed up the establishment of regulations and improve the policy-making system; (2) Optimize the network system for in situ protection of macrofungi and enhance ex situ protection capability; (3) Further investigate the status of macrofungi and establish a monitoring program; (4) Strengthen outreach and education about mcrofungi in the popular science domain, i.e., raising public awareness of conservation of important fungal resources; (5) Increase funds for fungal conservation and to improve the supportive capability of science and technology.

Key words: macrofungi, red list, threat assessments, conservation strategies