生物多样性 ›› 2019, Vol. 27 ›› Issue (1): 24-32.doi: 10.17520/biods.2018222

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

古田山常绿阔叶林不同演替群落的萌生特征

池秀莲1, 王庆刚2, *(), 郭强3, 杨弦3, 唐志尧3   

  1. 1 中国中医科学院中药资源中心, 道地药材国家重点实验室培育基地, 北京 100700
    2 中国农业大学资源与环境学院生态科学与工程系, 生物多样性与有机农业北京市重点实验室, 北京 100193
    3 北京大学城市与环境学院生态学系, 北京大学地表过程分析与模拟教育部重点实验室, 北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2018-08-09 接受日期:2019-01-09 出版日期:2019-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 王庆刚 E-mail:wangqg@cau.edu.cn
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(31500337);国家自然科学基金(81603236)

Sprouting characteristics of communities during succession in an evergreen broad-leaved forest on Gutian Mountain, East China

Chi Xiulian1, Wang Qinggang2, *(), Guo Qiang3, Yang Xian3, Tang Zhiyao3   

  1. 1 National Resource Center for Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Dao-di Herbs, Beijing 100700
    2 Department of Ecology and Ecological Engineering, College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, and Key Laboratory of Biodiversity and Organic Farming of Beijing City, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193
    3 Department of Ecology, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, The Key Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes of the Ministry of Education, Peking University, Beijing 100871
  • Received:2018-08-09 Accepted:2019-01-09 Online:2019-01-20
  • Contact: Wang Qinggang E-mail:wangqg@cau.edu.cn

萌生是植物营养繁殖的重要方式之一, 树木的萌生更新对群落结构的维持、植被的动态和演替具有重要意义。本研究基于古田山常绿阔叶林内处于不同演替阶段的25个30 m × 30 m样方中胸径 ≥ 5 cm的木本植物萌生茎发生情况的调查数据, 应用线性回归模型分析了不同演替群落的萌生特征及其地形解释。结果发现: (1)样地内共有56种木本植物存在萌生现象, 占总物种数的53.8%。(2)群落(样方)水平的萌生能力与海拔显著负相关, 与坡度和坡向的相关性较弱。(3)群落水平的萌生能力与林分年龄显著负相关; 在控制地形因子的影响下, 林分年龄对萌生指标解释量仍然达到20%-30%。萌生个体数和萌生物种丰富度所占比例随林分年龄显著下降, 萌生物种主茎的平均胸径随林分年龄显著增加。研究表明, 古田山常绿阔叶林萌生能力随林分年龄的增大而下降, 可能由演替序列上物种组成的变化(即萌生能力较强物种的多度下降)和群落结构的变化(即大径级个体增多)导致。另外, 萌生能力受到海拔、坡向等地形因素的影响。

关键词: 森林更新, 萌生茎, 林分年龄, 地形

Sprouting is an important vegetative reproduction strategy. Sprouting in woody plants is especially of great significance for maintaining forest structure and influencing vegetation dynamics and succession. In this study, we collected sprout data from 25 plots (30 m × 30 m) in an evergreen broad-leaved forest on Gutian Mountain, Zhejiang Province, East China for all trees with diameter at breast height (DBH) equal to or greater than 5 cm. Based on this data, we used general linear regression models to explore the characteristics and the effects of topographic factors and forest age on sprouting ability in forest communities during succession. We found that (1) 53.8% (56/104) of species in this forest showed evidence of sprouting. (2) The plot-level sprouting ability decreased significantly with elevation and marginally decreased significantly with aspect. (3) The plot-level sprouting ability decreased significantly with forest age. Forest age explained 20%-30% of the variation in sprouting ability after being fitted with the models using topographical factors. Both the number of sprouting genets and the proportion of sprouted species richness decreased significantly, while the mean DBH of sprouting genets increased significantly with forest age. This study shows that a decrease in community sprouting ability coupled with an increase in forest age may result from changes in both species composition (i.e. a decreasing number of individuals, but a higher sprouting ability) and structure (i.e. an increasing in proportion of larger individuals) during forest succession. In addition, the sprouting ability of forest communities is also affected by topographical factors, such as elevation and aspect.

Key words: forest regeneration, sprouts, forest age, topography

表1

所有个体数排名前20的萌生物钟的萌生特征统计"

表2

萌生能力与林分年龄和地形因子的一元线性回归分析结果"

萌生能力指标
Sprouting ability index
变量
Variables
回归斜率
Coefficient
解释量 Explained
variation (R2)
P
萌生率 Ratio of the number of sprouts to the number of main stems (RS) 海拔 Elevation -0.0007 0.258 0.0095
坡度 Slope -0.0041 0.017 0.5328
坡向 Aspect -0.0677 0.085 0.1567
林分年龄 Forest age -0.0058 0.383 0.0010
萌生个体比例 Proportion of sprouting individuals among all individuals (PMSI) 海拔 Elevation -0.0003 0.262 0.0089
坡度 Slope -0.0019 0.018 0.5193
坡向 Aspect -0.0378 0.129 0.0781
林分年龄 Forest age -0.0023 0.295 0.0050
萌生个体平均萌茎数 Number of sprouts per sprouting individual (NSMSI) 海拔 Elevation -0.0009 0.154 0.0522
坡度 Slope -0.0065 0.015 0.5601
坡向 Aspect -0.0697 0.031 0.3997
林分年龄 Forest age -0.0091 0.322 0.0031

图1

群落萌生率(RS)、萌生个体比例(PMSI)、萌生个体平均萌茎数(NSMSI)及经地形因子拟合解释变异后各萌生能力指标的剩余残差与林分年龄的关系。实线代表线性关系显著即P ≤ 0.05。RS表示萌生率, 即样方内萌茎数与个体数之比; PMSI表示萌生个体比例, 即样方内萌生个体数与所有个体数之比; NSMSI表示萌生个体平均萌茎数, 即样方内的萌茎数与萌生个体数之比。"

图2

萌生物种丰富度、萌生物种丰富度比例、萌生个体数及萌生物种主茎平均胸径与林分年龄的关系。实线代表线性关系显著即P ≤ 0.05, 虚线代表线性关系不显著即P > 0.05。"

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