生物多样性 ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (10): 1103-1115.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2018159

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

蚯蚓调控土壤微生态缓解连作障碍的作用机制

毕艳孟1,2, 孙振钧1,*()   

  1. 1 (中国农业大学资源与环境学院, 北京 100193)
    2 (中国医学科学院北京协和医学院药用植物研究所, 北京 100193);许永利 (2006) 蚯蚓粪解除西瓜连作障碍的效果及机理初探. 硕士学位论文, 中国农业大学, 北京.
  • 收稿日期:2018-06-01 接受日期:2018-08-03 出版日期:2018-10-20 发布日期:2019-01-06
  • 通讯作者: 孙振钧
  • 作者简介:# 共同第一作者
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(41371305)

Mechanisms of earthworms to alleviate continuous cropping obstacles through regulating soil microecology

Yanmeng Bi1,2, Zhenjun Sun1,*()   

  1. 1 College of Resources and Environmental Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193
    2 Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Beijing Union Medical College, Beijing 100193
  • Received:2018-06-01 Accepted:2018-08-03 Online:2018-10-20 Published:2019-01-06
  • Contact: Sun Zhenjun
  • About author:# Co-first authors

摘要:

连作障碍不仅严重影响作物产量, 而且会导致土壤生物多样性下降、有益微生物减少及病原菌增加等一系列微生态失衡问题。土壤微生态失衡反作用于植物, 导致植物发生更严重的病害、减产等。作为土壤生态系统工程师, 蚯蚓的取食、掘洞和爬行等活动对土壤微生态具有重要的调控作用, 既可以改善土壤环境, 又可以强化土壤生物群落功能, 有望为缓解作物的连作障碍问题提供一条新途径。本文总结了土壤微生态与土壤功能维持及蚯蚓调控土壤生物作用的研究进展, 在此基础上, 结合蚯蚓对化感物质降解作用的研究, 分析了蚯蚓通过调控土壤微生态缓解作物连作障碍的微生物作用机制的三条途径: 直接调控微生物群落、通过改变化感物质组成以及通过调控土壤动物区系调控微生物群落。蚯蚓对微生物群落的调控可改善失衡的土壤根际微生态, 有效缓解作物连作障碍。

关键词: 蚯蚓, 连作障碍, 土壤动物, 化感物质, 土壤微生物

Abstract:

Obstacles to continuous cropping seriously affect crop yield and also lead to a series of microecological imbalance problems, such as the decline of soil biodiversity, the decrease of beneficial microbes, and the increase of pathogens. The imbalanced soil microecology affects plants and can lead to more serious disease and even greater reduction of crop yield. As soil ecosystem engineers, earthworms have important regulating effects on soil microecology. Earthworms can improve the soil environment and strengthen the function of soil biological communities through their activities (e.g. feeding, burrowing and creeping), thus providing a potential way to alleviate microecological obstacles to continuous cropping. This paper reviews the progress made in research on soil microecology, soil function maintenance, and earthworm regulation of soil biological function. Three mechanisms that earthworms employ to alleviate obstacles to continuous cropping through soil microecology regulation were identified: direct regulation of soil microbial communities, regulation of microbial colonies by changing allelochemical composition, and regulation of soil fauna communities. Through earthworm regulation of microbial communities, an imbalanced soil microenvironment in the rhizosphere is corrected, thereby alleviating obstacles to continuous cropping.

Key words: earthworms, obstacles to continuous cropping, soil animal, allelochemicals, soil microbes