生物多样性 ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (11): 1147-1157.doi: 10.17520/biods.2018135

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

辽东山区次生林乔木幼苗组成及其年际动态

蔡军奇1, 刘大鹏2, 张淑媛1, 宗国1, 刘佳1, 白雪娇1, 3, *()   

  1. 1 沈阳农业大学林学院, 沈阳 110866
    2 本溪满族自治县兰河峪林场, 辽宁本溪 117103
    3 中国科学院清原森林生态系统观测研究站, 沈阳 110016
  • 收稿日期:2018-05-04 接受日期:2018-08-18 出版日期:2018-11-20
  • 通讯作者: 白雪娇 E-mail:bxjiao1984@163.com
  • 作者简介:

    # 共同第一作者

  • 基金项目:
    国家重点研发计划项目子课题(2017YFC050410501)、辽宁省农业领域青年科技创新人才培养计划项目(2015047)和国家自然科学基金 (31300378)

Composition and interannual dynamics of tree seedlings in a secondary forest in montane region of eastern Liaoning Province, China

Junqi Cai1, Dapeng Liu2, Shuyuan Zhang1, Guo Zong1, Jia Liu1, Xuejiao Bai1, 3, *()   

  1. 1 College of Forestry, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866
    2 Benxi Manzu Autonomous County Lanhe Valley Forest Farm, Benxi, Liaoning 117103
    3 Qingyuan Forest Ecosystem Observation Station, Chinese Ecosystem Research Network, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016
  • Received:2018-05-04 Accepted:2018-08-18 Online:2018-11-20
  • Contact: Bai Xuejiao E-mail:bxjiao1984@163.com
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

为了解辽东山区次生林乔木幼苗组成及其年际动态, 本文以4 ha动态监测样地为平台, 对样地内1,600个 5 m × 5 m样方进行监测。依据2014-2016年连续3年的调查, 对样地内乔木幼苗的组成、高度分布、新增和死亡年际动态、空间分布格局等进行分析。结果表明: (1)调查期间共记录到22种乔木幼苗, 3年间幼苗组成没有发生变化, 但各个样方间出现极大差异, 并且幼苗优势树种组成与样地内优势树种成分保持着一定的相似性。(2)幼苗数量在不同树种和年际间表现出较大的差异: 花曲柳(Fraxinus rhynchophylla)、色木槭(Acer mono)、胡桃楸(Juglans mandshurica)在3年间幼苗数量最多, 占幼苗总数的75.6%; 花曲柳和胡桃楸幼苗数量表现出较明显的年际波动, 其他树种波动较小, 不同树种的幼苗密度差异很大。(3)幼苗新增和死亡存在明显的种间和年际差异: 2014-2015年间幼苗的新增数量(3,888)明显高于2015-2016年间(1,710), 同时2014-2015年间幼苗死亡率(23.7%)也明显高于2015-2016年间(12.7%)。对2015-2016年间新增幼苗和已有幼苗的死亡情况进行比较可以发现, 新增幼苗总体死亡率(18.8%)明显高于已有幼苗(8.1%)。(4)对比幼苗和大树的空间分布可以发现, 样地内优势幼苗都表现出集群分布的特征。在空间分布上, 幼苗与母树保持一定的相似性。

关键词: 森林更新, 年际动态, 空间分布, 辽东山区, 次生林

To explore the composition and interannual dynamics of tree seedlings in the montane region of eastern Liaoning Province in China, we established 1,600 seedling quadrats of size 5 m × 5 m (25 m2) within a 4-ha plot to monitor forest dynamics. We analyzed species composition, height-class structure, interannual dynamics and spatial distribution of tree seedlings from three censuses (2014 to 2016). We recorded a total of 22 species of tree seedlings during the survey period. The species composition of tree seedlings did not vary significantly among years, but varied greatly among quadrats. Species that dominated as seedlings largely reflected the dominant species among adults. Tree seedling numbers varied significantly among different tree species across years, with Fraxinus rhynchophylla, Acer mono and Juglans mandshurica accounting for 75.6% of the total seedlings in the three censuses. The abundances of F. rhynchophylla and J. mandshurica seedlings varied greatly among three years, while the other species varied little. Similarly, seedling density also varied greatly among different species. We also found interspecific and interannual variation in new seedling recruits and those that died. Recruit abundance during 2014-2015 (3,888) was higher than 2015-2016 (1,710), and the seedling mortality rate was also higher in 2014-2015 (23.7%) than 2015-2016 (12.7%). The mortality rate of recruited seedlings (18.8%) was higher than that of existing seedlings (8.1%) during 2015-2016. Finally, we found that the dominant seedlings showed spatially clustered distributions and the spatial pattern of seedling distributions was consistent with that of adults of the species.

Key words: forest regeneration, interannual dynamics, spatial distribution, montane region of eastern Liaoning Province, secondary forest

图1

辽东山区次生林固定监测样地的地形图"

表1

不同年份幼苗树种组成、死亡率和更新率及其各新生幼苗出现的样方数"

表2

2014年幼苗组成与数量特征"

树种
Species
幼苗数量
No. of
seedlings
幼苗密度
Seedling density
(mean ± SE,
n = 1,600)
幼苗密度变异系数
CV of seedling
density (%)
相对多度
Relative
abundance
相对频度
Relative
frequency
重要值
Importance
value
花曲柳 Fraxinus rhynchophylla 5,189 3.685 ± 0.347 376.97 32.93 10.81 21.87
色木槭 Acer mono 3,910 2.777 ± 0.146 209.71 24.81 17.13 20.97
胡桃楸 Juglans mandshurica 1,712 1.216 ± 0.040 131.52 10.86 19.53 15.20
暴马丁香 Syringa amurensis 827 0.587 ± 0.042 288.83 5.25 7.13 6.19
假色槭 Acer pseudo-sieboldianum 742 0.527 ± 0.044 336.29 4.71 5.53 5.12
水曲柳 Fraxinus mandshruica 622 0.442 ± 0.042 379.44 3.95 5.42 4.69
山杨 Populus davidiana 614 0.436 ± 0.046 425.41 3.90 3.17 3.54
灯台树 Bothrocaryum controversum 379 0.269 ± 0.023 348.90 2.40 4.58 3.49
裂叶榆 Ulmus laciniata 291 0.207 ± 0.015 283.45 1.85 4.93 3.39
蒙古栎 Quercus mongolica 240 0.170 ± 0.016 386.00 1.52 3.05 2.29
青楷槭 Acer tegmentosum 208 0.148 ± 0.014 379.95 1.32 3.01 2.17
小楷槭 Acer komarovii 178 0.126 ± 0.012 383.95 1.13 2.82 1.98
怀槐 Maackia amurensis 180 0.128 ± 0.012 378.25 1.14 2.71 1.93
稠李 Prunus padus 172 0.122 ± 0.013 440.27 1.09 2.55 1.82
水榆花楸 Sorbus alnifolia 143 0.102 ± 0.010 379.01 0.91 2.57 1.74
千金榆 Carpinus cordata 154 0.109 ± 0.012 434.08 0.98 2.34 1.66
紫椴 Tilia amurensis 86 0.061 ± 0.007 483.57 0.55 1.20 0.88
花楷槭 Acer ukurunduense 41 0.029 ± 0.008 1,105.50 0.26 0.58 0.42
黄檗 Phellodendron amurense 33 0.023 ± 0.007 1,215.70 0.21 0.42 0.32
春榆 Ulmus propinqua 29 0.021 ± 0.005 1,022.49 0.18 0.35 0.27
黄榆 Ulmus macrocarpa 7 0.005 ± 0.002 1,415.22 0.04 0.12 0.08
三花槭 Acer triflorum 3 0.002 ± 0.001 2,164.87 0.02 0.07 0.05
总计 Total 15,760 100.00 100.00 100.00

表3

2014-2016年乔木幼苗的非参数多元方差分析"

自由度 df 平方和 SS 均方和 MS F P
年份 Year 2 343.18 171.591 4,016.3 0.001***
残差 Residuals 4,797 204.95 0.043
总数 Total 4,799 548.13
2014 vs. 2015 2,674.386 0.001
2014 vs. 2016 5,036.132 0.001
2015 vs. 2016 7,513.394 0.001

表4

2014-2016年新增乔木幼苗的非参数多元方差分析"

自由度 df 平方和 SS 均方和 MS F P
年份 Year 1 166.74 166.744 2,701.5 0.001***
残差 Residuals 3,198 197.39 0.062
总数 Total 3,198 364.13

图2

2014-2016年间幼苗高度级分布和树种数出现的样方数"

图3

2014-2016年间死亡幼苗高度级分布及2015-2016年间新增和已有死亡幼苗高度级分布"

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