生物多样性 ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (9): 919-930.doi: 10.17520/biods.2018101

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

西双版纳望天树林种子雨9年动态

窦丽娜1, 2, 张文富1, 邓晓保1, 曹敏1, *(), 唐勇1   

  1. 1 (中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园热带森林生态学重点实验室, 云南勐腊 666303)
    2 (中国科学院大学, 北京 100049);
  • 收稿日期:2018-04-04 接受日期:2018-05-15 出版日期:2018-09-20
  • 通讯作者: 曹敏 E-mail:caom@xtbg.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:# 共同第一作者
  • 基金项目:
    国家重大科学研究计划(2014CB954100)和中国科学院“一三五”专项(2012XTBG-T01)

Nine-year seed rain dynamics in Parashorea chinensis forest in Xishuangbanna, Southwest China

Lina Dou1, 2, Wenfu Zhang1, Xiaobao Deng1, Min Cao1, *(), Yong Tang1   

  1. 1 CAS Key Laboratory of Tropical Forest Ecology, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Mengla, Yunnan 666303
    2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2018-04-04 Accepted:2018-05-15 Online:2018-09-20
  • Contact: Cao Min E-mail:caom@xtbg.ac.cn
  • About author:# Co-first authors

种子雨是森林生态系统过程的重要组成部分。虽然国内外已有部分关于种子雨的研究, 但多数集中在温带和亚热带地区, 热带地区种子雨的长期监测研究仍显不足。为全面了解热带森林种子雨输入的数量动态和物种组成的长期规律, 本文对我国西双版纳望天树(Parashorea chinensis)林群落水平上9年(2008年5月至2017年4月)的种子雨输入进行了研究。9年共收集到木本植物的种子226种8,993,224粒, 其中大型种子(I-1型) 77种9,779粒; 中型种子(I-2型) 61种24,237粒; 小型种子(I-3型) 72种83,399粒; 粒状微小种子(II-1型) 13种1,215,235粒; 粒状极小种子(II-2型) 1种7,244,667粒; 细丝状种子(II-3型) 2种415,907粒。种子雨输入量排名前10位的优势种贡献了70%以上的种子数量。各类型种子的种子雨输入量均具有年际波动, 呈“大小年”的交替变化, 间隔期为1-2年, 物种组成也呈现一定的年际差异。持续9年的监测中, 每类型种子至少观察到了1次大年结实事件。

关键词: 热带森林, 种子雨, 物种组成, 年际动态, 大年结实

Seed rain patterns are a crucial influence on plant regeneration. Although it is very challenging to understand the dynamics of seed rain, long-term monitoring of seeds can provide useful insights. In this study, we monitored seed rain patterns of forests dominated by Parashorea chinensis in Xishuangbanna, Southwest China for nine years. We recorded 8,993,224 seeds belonging to 226 species, between May 2008 and April 2017. We categorized seeds of 77 species as large, 61 species as medium, 72 species as small, 13 species as tiny, 1 species as infinitesimally grainy seed and 2 species as filamentous. More than 70% of all seeds belong to the top 10 dominant species. Seeds of all types showed pronounced inter-annual variation for both seed number and species number. At least one mast seeding was observed for each of the seed type during nine years.

Key words: tropical forest, seed rain, species composition, inter-annual variation, mast seeding

图1

种子雨收集器的设置。(A)种子雨收集器结构示意图; (B)种子雨收集器在样地中的分布, 横坐标、纵坐标分别指20 ha大样地的宽度和长度。"

表1

西双版纳望天树林9年中采集到的全部成熟完整种子个体数、种子密度和物种数量"

种子类型
Seed type
种子数
No. of seeds
种子密度
Seed density
(seeds·m-2·yr-1)
物种数
Species
年际变异系数
CVyears
I-1 9,779 14.5 77 0.35
I-2 24,237 35.9 61 0.50
I-3 83,399 123.6 72 0.28
小计 Subtotal 117,415 174.0 210 0.24
II-1 1,215,235 1,800.3 13 0.72
II-2 7,244,667 10,732.8 1 0.81
II-3 415,907 616.2 2 0.73
小计 Subtotal 8,875,809 13,149.3 16 0.69
总计 Total 8,993,224 13,323.3 226 0.68

图2

226个物种2008-2017年种子雨输入量年际变异系数频率分布图"

图3

2008-2017年间6种类型种子雨输入量的年际变化。6种类型种子的含义同表1。"

图4

2008-2017年间4种类型种子雨物种数量的年际变化。因II-2和II-3型种子仅分别包括1种和2种, 故在此未列出。6种类型种子的含义同表1。"

表2

4种类型种子的种子雨输入量前10位的优势物种"

种子类型
Seed type
总数量
No. of seeds
密度
Density (seeds·m-2·yr-1)
占所有物种种子数量的百分比
% of all species
I-1 大型种子 Large-sized seeds
假海桐 Pittopsoropsis kerrii 1,629 2.4
云树 Garcinia cowa 1,316 1.9
南酸枣 Choerospondias axillaris 951 1.4
贵州香花藤 Aganosma breviloba 616 0.9
望天树 Parashorea chinensis 527 0.8
番龙眼 Pometia pinnata 484 0.7
华马钱 Strychnos cathayensis 413 0.6
蒙自黄檀 Dalbergia henryana 404 0.6
望谟崖摩 Aglaia lawii 325 0.5
微花藤 Iodes cirrhosa 321 0.5
合计 Total 6,986 71.44
I-2 中型种子 Medium-sized seeds
短刺锥 Castanopsis echinocarpa 6,041 8.9
阔叶风车子 Combretum latifolium 2,662 3.9
宽药青藤 Illigera celebica 1,318 2.0
多花瓜馥木 Fissistigma polyanthum 1,779 2.6
毛叶岭南酸枣 Spondiaslakonensis var. hirsuta 1,734 2.6
海南破布叶 Microcos chungii 1,243 1.8
酸苔菜 Ardisia solanacea 1,192 1.8
细毛润楠 Machilus tenuipilis 1,118 1.7
岭南臭椿 Ailanthus triphysa 787 1.2
羽叶金合欢 Acacia pennata 930 1.4
合计 Total 18,804 77.58
I-3 小型种子 Small-sized seeds
小萼菜豆树 Radermachera microcalyx 20,972 31.1
狭叶一担柴 Colona thorelii 13,803 20.4
千果榄仁 Terminalia myriocarpa 6,903 10.2
云南黄杞 Engelhardtia spicata 6,213 9.2
浆果乌桕 Balakata baccata 5,460 8.1
滇缅斑鸠菊 Vernonia parishii 5,436 8.1
翅果麻 Kydia calycina 4,581 6.8
西桦 Betula alnoides 3,381 5.0
羽叶白头树 Garuga pinnata 1,891 2.8
大果褐叶榕 Ficus pubigera var. maliformis 1,594 2.4
合计 Total 70,234 84.21
II-1 粒状微小种子 Tiny grainy seeds
假斜叶榕 Ficus subulata 495,753 734.4
青藤公 Ficus langkokensis 392,351 581.3
劲直榕 Ficus stricta 119,718 177.4
羊乳榕 Ficus sagittata 112,407 166.5
水同木 Ficus fistulosa 73,401 108.7
滇南新乌檀 Neonauclea tsaiana 9,857 14.6
海桐叶柃 Eurya pittosporifolia 5,816 8.6
垂叶榕 Ficus benjamina var. benjamina 2,657 3.9
棒果榕 Ficus subincisa 2,020 3.0
大果榕 Ficus auriculata 770 1.1
合计 Total 1,214,750 99.96
II-2 粒状极小种子 Infinitesimally grainy seed
团花 Neolamarckia cadamba 7,244,667 10,732.8
合计 Total 7,244,667 100.00
II-3 细丝状种子 Filamentous seeds
八宝树 Duabanga grandiflora 194,928 288.8
大叶钩藤 Uncaria macrophylla 220,979 327.4
合计 Total 415,907 100.00
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