生物多样性 ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (7): 749-759.doi: 10.17520/biods.2018055

• • 上一篇    下一篇

极小种群野生植物黄梅秤锤树群落结构与动态

王世彤1, 2, 吴浩1, 2, 刘梦婷1, 2, 张佳鑫1, 2, 刘检明1, 2, 孟红杰1, 徐耀粘1, 乔秀娟1, 魏新增1, *(), 卢志军1, 江明喜1   

  1. 1 中国科学院水生植物与流域生态重点实验室, 中国科学院武汉植物园, 武汉 430074
    2 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2018-02-11 接受日期:2018-04-02 出版日期:2018-07-20
  • 通讯作者: 魏新增 E-mail:xzwei@wbgcas.cn
  • 基金项目:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC0503105)和国家自然科学基金(31470515)

Community structure and dynamics of a remnant forest dominated by a plant species with extremely small population (Sinojackia huangmeiensis) in central China

Wang Shitong1, 2, Wu Hao1, 2, Liu Mengting1, 2, Zhang Jiaxin1, 2, Liu Jianming1, 2, Meng Hongjie1, Xu Yaozhan1, Qiao Xiujuan1, Wei Xinzeng1, *(), Lu Zhijun1, Jiang Mingxi1   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Aquatic Botany and Watershed Ecology, Wuhan Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430074
    2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2018-02-11 Accepted:2018-04-02 Online:2018-07-20
  • Contact: Wei Xinzeng E-mail:xzwei@wbgcas.cn

本文以极小种群野生植物黄梅秤锤树(Sinojackia huangmeiensis)当前唯一的野生种群为依托建立了1 ha的固定样地, 研究了黄梅秤锤树野生植物群落的物种组成、优势种的径级结构、黄梅秤锤树的空间分布格局、种内与种间空间关联性和种群更新特征。样地内共记录到胸径 ≥ 1.0 cm的木本植物31种, 隶属于21科28属。群落更新良好, 样地中所有1,225株个体中小径木占比为67.18%。群落优势种为麻栎(Quercus acutissima)、枸骨(Ilex cornuta)、朴树(Celtis sinensis)和黄梅秤锤树。麻栎的径级结构呈单峰型, 为衰退型种群; 枸骨、朴树和黄梅秤锤树的径级结构呈倒“J”型或偏倒“J”型, 表明更新良好。黄梅秤锤树的空间分布格局在小尺度上呈聚集分布, 在大尺度上呈随机或均匀分布, 并且与其他3个优势种(麻栎、枸骨、朴树)在空间上主要呈负关联性。黄梅秤锤树的成树和幼苗、幼树和幼苗都是在小尺度上呈负关联性, 在大尺度上关联性不显著, 而成树和幼树在整体上关联性不显著。黄梅秤锤树的萌蘖现象非常明显, 萌蘖数与母株胸径具有极显著的正相关性(R2 = 0.330, P < 0.001), 萌蘖率与相对幼苗密度具有极显著的负相关性(R2 = 0.438, P < 0.001)。总体来说, 高比例的小径木和普遍的种间负关联均表明该群落处于演替的早中期, 物种组成和群落结构还未达到稳定阶段。作为长江中下游冲积平原区具有代表性的残存风水林, 该野生植物群落在生物多样性维持和珍稀植物保护方面具有重要的作用, 应加强保护和管理。

关键词: 物种组成, 径级结构, 点格局分析, 风水林, 极小种群野生植物, 黄梅秤锤树, 就地保护

In China, Sinojackia huangmeiensis is among the 120 plant species with extremely small populations (PSESP), with only one extant wild population located at the lakeside of the Longgan Lake, central China. Here, we followed the field protocol of the 50-ha permanent forest plot on the Barro Colorado Island in Panama to census all free-standing woody species ≥ 1 cm diameter at breast height (DBH) in a 1-ha plot established in a lowland fengshui forest dominated by S. huangmeiensis. We recorded a total of 1,225 living individuals, belonging to 31 species, 28 genera and 21 families. Individuals with DBH < 7.5 cm accounted for ca. 67% of all individuals, indicating good natural regeneration in the community. The most dominant species were Quercus acutissima, Ilex cornuta, Celtis sinensis, and S. huangmeiensis. Quercus acutissima showed a single peak pattern of diameter class distribution, while I. cornuta, C. sinensis, and S. huangmeiensis showed a reverse “J” shape or a partial reverse “J” shape. S. huangmeiensis showed aggregated distribution at small spatial scales and random or uniform distributions at large scales. Individuals of S. huangmeiensis were negatively associated with the other three dominant species. Seedlings of S. huangmeiensis were negatively associated with both conspecific saplings and adults at small scales, but showed no correlation at other scales. There was a significantly positive correlation between sprout number and DBH of S. huangmeiensis (R2 = 0.330, P < 0.001), whereas ratio of sprout and relative seedling density showed a negative correlation (R2 = 0.438, P < 0.001). In general, high percentage of small-sized individuals and interspecific negative associations suggested that this plant community is still at an early-to-middle stage of succession. The remnant fengshui forests in the lowland plains of the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River are important for their roles in the conservation of biodiversity and endangered plants and should therefore be protected and well-managed.

Key words: species composition, diameter class structure, point pattern analysis, fengshui forest, plant species with extremely small populations, Sinojackia huangmeiensis, in situ conservation

图1

1 ha 样地位置(a)和样地示意图(b)。灰色部分代表25个20 m × 20 m的样方。"

表1

1 ha 样地内重要值 ≥ 1%的物种的数量特征"

物种
Species
多度
Abundance
胸径
DBH (mean ± SE) (cm)
胸高断面积
Basal area (m2/ha)
重要值
Importance value (%)
麻栎 Quercus acutissima 212 24.18 ± 0.75 11.99 27.40
枸骨 Ilex cornuta 282 5.25 ± 0.26 4.02 17.16
朴树 Celtis sinensis 125 6.01 ± 0.61 0.97 7.01
黄梅秤锤树 Sinojackia huangmeiensis 159 2.72 ± 0.19 0.26 6.45
枫香 Liquidambar formosana 55 16.00 ± 1.20 1.46 6.26
槲栎 Quercus aliena 40 15.82 ± 1.67 1.15 4.84
野桐 Mallotus tenuifolius 77 2.75 ± 0.14 0.07 4.32
黄连木 Pistacia chinensis 27 9.74 ± 1.46 0.32 3.21
大青 Clerodendrum cyrtophyllum 40 1.97 ± 0.12 0.02 3.10
樟树 Cinnamomum camphora 24 7.89 ± 1.83 0.44 3.05
山胡椒 Lindera glauca 20 3.29 ± 0.23 0.03 2.18
乌桕 Sapium sebiferum 30 8.91 ± 1.02 0.26 1.88
白檀 Symplocos paniculata 20 2.37 ± 0.18 0.01 1.62
华山矾 Symplocos chinensis 16 2.96 ± 0.52 0.02 1.52
柿树 Diospyros kaki 12 11.69 ± 2.25 0.18 1.27
榆树 Ulmus pumila 15 3.46 ± 0.44 0.02 1.23
牡荆 Vitex negundo var. cannabifolia 12 2.07 ± 0.23 0.01 1.13
其他 Others 59 - 0.42 6.36
总计 Total 1,225 - 21.64 100

图2

1 ha样地内4个优势种的径级结构"

图3

黄秤锤树点格局分析(a)及其与其他3个优势种的关联分析(c, e和g)。图b, d, f和h分别为黄梅秤锤树、麻栎、枸骨和朴树的空间分布图。图中黑色实线代表g (r)在尺度r上的实际观测值, 细虚线代表模拟99次形成的置信区间。点格局分析中,黑色实线高于(低于)置信区间上限(下限)表示聚集分布(均匀分布), 黑色实线位于置信区间之内, 则表示随机分布。关联分析中, 黑色实线高于(低于)置信区间上限(下限)表示正关联(负关联), 黑色实线位于置信区间之内, 则表示无关联。"

图4

黄梅秤锤树幼苗(DBH < 1 cm)、幼树(1 cm ≤ DBH < 2.5 cm)和成年个体(DBH ≥ 2.5 cm)之间的关联分析。图中黑色实线代表g(r)在尺度r上的实际观测值, 细虚线代表模拟99次形成的置信区间。黑色实线高于(低于)置信区间上限(下限)表示正关联(负关联)。黑色实线位于置信区间之内, 则表示无关联。"

图5

黄梅秤锤树萌蘖数与母株胸径的关系(a)和萌蘖率与相对幼苗密度的关系(b)"

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