生物多样性 ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (7): 717-726.doi: 10.17520/biods.2018035

• • 上一篇    下一篇

红外相机安放于地面和林冠层对野生动物监测结果的影响

房以好1, 2, 任国鹏2, 高颖1, 2, 张淑霞2, 王浩瀚2, 李延鹏2, 黄志旁2, 崔亮伟1, *(), 肖文2, *()   

  1. 1 西南林业大学生物多样性保护与利用学院, 昆明 650224
    2 大理大学东喜玛拉雅研究院, 云南大理 671003
  • 收稿日期:2018-02-05 接受日期:2018-05-22 出版日期:2018-07-20
  • 通讯作者: 崔亮伟,肖文 E-mail:cuilw@eastern-himalaya.cn;xiaow@eastern-himalaya.cn
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(31560118;31560599)、“云南省中国三江并流区域生物多样性协同创新中心”云教科[2015] 25号、云南省中青年学术和技术带头人培养项目(2015HB047;2014HB024)、云南省应用基础研究项目(2015FB157)和云南林学一流学科建设项目(51600625)

Impact of ground and canopy camera-trapping installation on wildlife monitoring

Fang Yihao1, 2, Ren Guopeng2, Gao Ying1, 2, Zhang Shuxia2, Wang Haohan2, Li Yanpeng2, Huang Zhipang2, Cui Liangwei1, *(), Xiao Wen2, *()   

  1. 1 Faculty of Biodiversity Conservation and Utilization, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224
    2 Institute of Eastern-Himalaya Biodiversity Research, Dali University, Dali, Yunnan 671003
  • Received:2018-02-05 Accepted:2018-05-22 Online:2018-07-20
  • Contact: Cui Liangwei,Xiao Wen E-mail:cuilw@eastern-himalaya.cn;xiaow@eastern-himalaya.cn

红外相机技术在野生动物研究中日趋普及, 逐渐成为重要的生物多样性监测手段。过去的监测常局限于地面, 而针对林冠层的监测较少, 这对野生动物的多样性评估影响尚未可知。为此, 本研究在生物多样性丰富的碧罗雪山南段, 将20台红外相机分别拍摄地面层(0.5-1.5 m)和林冠层(5-10 m)配对比较, 累计拍摄2,319个有效相机日, 平均每对相机同步进行112.5 d的监测。监测期间共拍摄到44种野生动物(不包括鼠形啮齿类), 其中兽类20种, 鸟类24种; 冠层和地面红外相机监测的物种相似度为29.54%; 15种动物仅拍摄于林冠层, 16种动物仅拍摄于地面, 13种动物拍摄于两个林层。研究结果表明不同林层监测的物种组成存在显著差异, 林冠层与地面层监测都具有不可替代性; 不同林层红外相机的监测手段也能用于研究野生动物的空间选择和生态位分化。红外相机监测中根据目标物种的习性在相应的林层设置相机能提高物种发现率; 为全面掌握区域森林生态系统野生动物的多样性, 红外相机监测需要兼顾不同林层这一点需要在监测规范中明细。

关键词: 红外相机, 地面, 林冠层, 野生动物监测, 物种差异, 监测规范

Camera trap technology is increasingly used in wildlife research, and has become an important tool to assess biodiversity. Traditionally, biodiversity is monitored from the ground with limited visual access to the wildlife present in the canopy layers. The impact of this limitation on the results of biodiversity assessments is unclear. In this study, a region characterized by rich biodiversity - the southern section of Biluo Snow Mountain - was monitored using 20 camera-trappings from January 2016 to July 2017. We installed cameras in groups of two working synchronously: one in the understory (0.5-1.5 m) and one in the overstory (5-10 m). For 2,319 trapping days, the cumulative monitoring period averaged to 112.5 days. We photographed 44 species of wild animals (not including rodents such as rats), 20 of which were mammals and 24 were birds. The similarity index of canopy and ground species was 29.54%. Fifteen species appeared only in the canopy, 16 species appeared only on the ground, and 13 species were photographed in both forest strata. Obvious differences in the species composition present in different forest strata were observed, suggesting that monitoring two strata is necessary. Results show that the detection rate of species by camera traps can be improved by installing cameras in forest strata corresponding to the habitat of target species. Our method of camera trap monitoring in different forest strata can also be used to study the spatial selection and niche differentiation of wild animals. To fully assess the diversity of wild animals in forest ecosystems monitoring at different forest strata is essential; new monitoring standards must incorporate multi-strata monitoring.

Key words: camera-trapping, ground, canopy, wildlife surveillance, species differences, monitoring standards

图1

红外相机布设位点"

表1

红外相机安装及工作状况"

相机号
Camera code
北纬
North latitude
东经
East longitude
海拔高度
Altitude (m)
有效监测日
Efficient camera day
独立照片数
No. of independent photo
拍摄率
Capture rate (%)
A1T 25.95387° 99.02626° 2,650 183 37 20.22
A1G 25.95416° 99.02644° 2,640 179 134 74.86
A2T 25.95587° 99.02233° 2,690 182 92 50.55
A2G 25.95644° 99.02199° 2,700 183 128 69.95
A3T 25.95634° 99.02401° 2,630 160 20 12.50
A3G 25.94829° 99.02451° 2,720 183 98 53.55
A4T 25.94075° 99.03471° 2,530 119 61 51.26
A4G 25.94059° 99.03476° 2,500 173 2 1.16
A5T 25.94637° 99.03595° 2,320 125 9 7.20
A5G 25.94679° 99.03623° 2,300 112 81 72.32
B1T 25.72784° 99.17677° 2,630 80 31 38.75
B1G 25.72707° 99.17143° 2,640 81 11 13.58
B2T 25.72072° 99.20972° 2,480 69 34 49.28
B2G 25.71856° 99.20375° 2,460 69 18 26.09
B3T 25.72188° 99.17846° 2,380 50 40 80.00
B3G 25.7216° 99.17867° 2,350 78 71 91.03
B4T 25.72591° 99.17498° 2,500 79 18 22.78
B4G 25.72631° 99.17955° 2,510 79 32 40.51
B5T 25.71978° 99.20995° 2,570 71 120 169.01
B5G 25.71798° 99.20969° 2,750 64 19 29.69
CRG 462 41.32
CRT 594 49.46

图2

红外相机在地面与林冠层拍摄到的动物物种数"

图3

红外相机在地面与林冠层拍摄到的动物分布状况1. 纹胸斑翅鹛 Actinodura waldeni 2. 栗臀鳾 Sitta nagaensis3. 丽色奇鹛 Heterophasia pulchella4. 灰林鸮 Strix aluco 5. 灰喉柳莺 Phylloscopus maculipennis 6. 黄颈啄木鸟 Dendrocopos darjellensis7. 黄颊山雀 Parus spilonotus 8. 红嘴相思鸟 Leiothrix lutea 9. 领鸺鹠 Glaucidium brodiei10. 黑头奇鹛 Heterophasia melanoleuca 11. 黑顶噪鹛 Garrulax affinis 12. 白喉噪鹛 Garrulax albogularis13. 灰头鼯鼠 Petaurista caniceps 14. 隐纹松鼠 Tamiops swinhoei 15. 灰叶猴 Trachypithecus phayrei16. 霜背大鼯鼠 Petaurista philippensis 17. 赤腹松鼠 Callosciurus erythraeus 18. 花面狸 Paguma larvata19. 小熊猫 Ailurus fulgens 20. 黄嘴栗啄木鸟 Blythipicus pyrrhotis 21. 长尾地鸫 Zoothera dixoni22. 乌鸫 Turdus merula23. 灰头鸫 Turdus rubrocanus 24. 棕腹鵙鹛 Pteruthius rufiventer 25. 熊猴 Macaca assamensis 26. 珀氏长吻松鼠 Dremomys pernyi 27. 北树鼩 Tupaia belangeri28. 红颊长吻松鼠 Dremomys rufigenis 29. 中华鬣羚 Capricornis milneedwardsii30. 野猪 Sus scrofa31. 亚洲黑熊 Ursus thibetanus 32. 红面短尾猴 Macaca arctoides 33. 中国豪猪 Hystrix brachyuran34. 赤麂 Muntiacus muntjak 35. 侧纹岩松鼠 Sciurotamias forresti 36. 斑林狸 Prionodon pardicolori 37. 豹猫 Prionailurus bengalensis 38. 环颈山鹧鸪 Arborophila torqueola 39. 红头噪鹛 Garrulax erythrocephalus40. 白鹇 Lophura nythemera 41. 白腹锦鸡 Chrvsolophus amherstiae 42. 白顶溪鸲 Chaimarrornis leucocephalus43. 棕腹大仙鹟 Niltava davidi 44. 紫啸鸫 Myophonus caeruleus"

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