生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (10): 1123-1130.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017079

• 研究报告: 植物多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

海南岛周边海域造礁石珊瑚的群落结构及其分布

周红英1, 2, 姚雪梅1, 2, *(), 黎李3, 耿涛年1, 2, 张颖1, 2   

  1. 1 南海海洋资源利用国家重点实验室(海南大学), 海口 570228
    2 海南大学海洋学院, 海口 570228
    3 海口市环境监察局, 海口 570125;
  • 收稿日期:2017-03-15 接受日期:2017-09-13 出版日期:2017-10-20
  • 通讯作者: 姚雪梅 E-mail:yaoxuemei72@163.com
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(31460555)和“中西部高校提升综合实力”资助项目

Scleractinian coral community structure and distribution in the coastal waters surrounding Hainan Island

Hongying Zhou1, 2, Xuemei Yao1, 2, *(), Li Li3, Taonian Geng1, 2, Ying Zhang1, 2   

  1. 1 State Key Laboratory of Marine Resource Utilization in South China Sea, Hainan University, Haikou 570228
    2 College of Ocean, Hainan University, Haikou 570228
    3 Department of Ecology and Environment Protection of Haikou, Haikou 570125
  • Received:2017-03-15 Accepted:2017-09-13 Online:2017-10-20
  • Contact: Yao Xuemei E-mail:yaoxuemei72@163.com

基于形态学分类鉴定, 并辅以分子标记, 我们于2014-2015年调查分析了海南岛文昌云龙湾、万宁大洲岛、儋州磷枪石岛、昌江沙鱼塘村、三亚鹿回头海域造礁石珊瑚的种类组成和分布。结果表明, 海南造礁石珊瑚的分布较为广泛, 共鉴定出10科17属55种, 其中鹿角珊瑚科、滨珊瑚科和蜂巢珊瑚科为优势科。各海域造礁石珊瑚的群落结构不同: 南部三亚鹿回头海域以分枝状鹿角珊瑚为主, 东部文昌云龙湾和万宁大洲岛海域分别以叶片状和分枝状蔷薇珊瑚为主, 而西部儋州磷枪石岛和昌江沙鱼塘村则分别以团块状滨珊瑚和蜂巢珊瑚为主。不同的地理环境使海南岛周边海域珊瑚礁群落呈现出不同的演替型, 具有明显的地域性分布特点。5个不同海域造礁石珊瑚的覆盖率和多样性指数依次为: 三亚鹿回头 > 文昌云龙湾 > 昌江沙鱼塘村 > 万宁大洲岛 > 儋州磷枪石岛, 覆盖率和多样性指数具有明显的正相关性。与2005-2010年的调查结果相比, 文昌云龙湾和万宁大洲岛保护区造礁石珊瑚的覆盖率和多样性指数有所上升, 昌江沙鱼塘村和三亚鹿回头相对稳定, 儋州磷枪石岛则下降比较明显。死亡率较高的是昌江沙鱼塘村邻近海域, 且多为最近半年内死亡。人类活动(保护性或破坏性)极大地影响着造礁石珊瑚的多样性、覆盖率和死亡率。

关键词: 海南, 造礁石珊瑚, 群落结构, 分布

Based on the classical morphological and molecular taxonomy, 55 scleractinian coral species, belonging to 17 genera and 10 families, were recorded in five different coastal areas (Yunlong Bay, Wenchang; Dazhou Island, Wanning; Linqiangshi Island, Danzhou; Shayutang Village, Changjiang; Luhuitou, Sanya) of Hainan between 2014 and 2015. The dominant families included Acroporidae, Poritadae and Faviidae. The community structures of coral reefs in the five coastal areas were different. In Sanya, located in the south of Hainan, branching Acropora corals dominated the coral communities. In Wenchang and Wanning, on the eastern coast of Hainan, the laminar and branching Montipora corals were the dominant groups. In contrast, the mass corals Poritadae and Faviidae dominated the western coast in Danzhou and Changjiang. Analyses of community structure indicated that different geographic environments regulated successional differences. Coverage rates and diversity index values had a positive correlation and were as follows: Sanya > Wenchang > Changjiang > Wanning > Danzhou. Compared with the data obtained between 2005 and 2010, the coverage rates and diversity index values increased in Wenchang and Wanning and were relatively stable in Sanya and Changjiang, but showed an obvious decrease in Danzhou. However, the death rate of scleractinian corals was the highest in Changjiang, and most of the corals died within the last six months of 2015. In our opinion, human activities (including both protective and destructive activities) greatly affected coverage rates, death rates and diversity of the coral reefs.

Key words: Hainan, scleractinian coral, community structure, distribution

图1

海南岛周边海域造礁石珊瑚调查区域及采样地点"

表1

海南岛5个海域造礁石珊瑚的优势种属组成"

地点 Location 优势属 Dominant genus 优势种 Dominant species 种优势度
Dominance of species (%)
属优势度
Dominance of genus (%)
文昌云龙湾
Yunlong Bay,
Wenchang
蔷薇珊瑚属 Montipora 叶状蔷薇珊瑚 M. foliosa 35 74
平展蔷薇珊瑚 M. solanderi 15
截顶蔷薇珊瑚 M. truncata 6
浅窝蔷薇珊瑚 M. foveolata 6
鹿角珊瑚属 Acropora 细枝鹿角珊瑚 A. nana 10 14.5
宽片鹿角珊瑚 A. lutkeni 4
万宁大洲岛
Dazhou Island,
Wanning
蔷薇珊瑚属 Montipora 指状蔷薇珊瑚 M. digitata 49.2 73.3
脆蔷薇珊瑚 M. fragilis 23.5
鹿角珊瑚属 Acropora 伞房鹿角珊瑚 A. corymbosa 2.7 3.1
蜂巢珊瑚属 Favia 帛琉蜂巢珊瑚 F. palauensis 2.4 6
扁脑珊瑚属 Platygyra 精巧扁脑珊瑚 P. daedalea 2.6 4
儋州磷枪石岛
Linqiangshi Island,
Danzhou
滨珊瑚属 Porites 澄黄滨珊瑚 P. lutea 43.4 61.8
普哥滨珊瑚 P. pukoensis 18.0
蜂巢珊瑚属 Favia 标准蜂巢珊瑚 F. speciosa 12.7 16
菊花珊瑚属 Goniastrea 粗糙菊花珊瑚 G. aspera 5.3 10
鹿角珊瑚属 Acropora 多孔鹿角珊瑚 A. millepora 10.4 12
昌江沙鱼塘村
Shayutang Village,
Changjiang
蜂巢珊瑚属 Favia 标准蜂巢珊瑚 F. speciosa 24 35
角蜂巢珊瑚属 Favites 五边角蜂巢珊瑚 F. pentagona 8 12
扁脑珊瑚属 Platygyra 交替扁脑珊瑚 P. crosslandi 10 21
鹿角珊瑚属 Acropora 多孔鹿角珊瑚 A. millepora 8 8.5
蔷薇珊瑚属 Montipora 截顶蔷薇珊瑚 M. truncata 7 7.8
三亚鹿回头
Luhuitou, Sanya
鹿角珊瑚属 Acropora 伞房鹿角珊瑚 A. corymbosa 10.2 60.6
松枝鹿角珊瑚 M. monasteriata 11.3
多孔鹿角珊瑚 A. millepora 10.8
鼻型鹿角珊瑚 A. nasuta 7.8
蔷薇珊瑚属 Montipora 横错蔷薇珊瑚 M. gaimardi 3.9 5.1

表2

海南岛5个海域造礁石珊瑚群落的多样性指数"

地点 Location 文昌云龙湾
Yunlong Bay,
Wenchang
万宁大洲岛
Dazhou Island,
Wanning
儋州磷枪石岛
Linqiangshi Island,
Danzhou
昌江沙鱼塘村
Shayutang Village,
Changjiang
三亚鹿回头
Luhuitou, Sanya
种类数 Species number 22 19 19 16 29
Shannon-Wiener多样性指数
Shannon-Wiener diversity index
3.51 2.84 2.67 3.48 4.41
Pielou均匀度指数
Pielou evenness index
2.62 2.26 2.39 2.83 3.02

表3

海南岛5个海域造礁石珊瑚群落的覆盖率和死亡率"

地点 Location 总覆盖率
Coverage rate (%)
活珊瑚覆盖率
Coverage rate of live scleractina (%)
死珊瑚覆盖率
Coverage rate of dead scleractina (%)
死亡率
Death rate (%)
文昌云龙湾
Yunlong Bay, Wenchang
38 35 3.0 7.8
万宁大洲岛
Dazhou Island, Wanning
30 28.5 1.5 5
儋州磷枪石岛
Linqiangshi Island, Danzhou
25 23.7 1.3 5
昌江沙鱼塘村
Shayutang Village, Changjiang
35 21.9 13.1 37.5
三亚鹿回头
Luhuitou, Sanya
40.2 39 1.2 3
[1] Arrigoni R, Stefani F, Pichon M, Galli P, Benzoni F (2012) Molecular phylogeny of the robust clade (Faviidae, Mussidae, Merulinidae, and Pectiniidae): an Indian Ocean perspective. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 65, 183-193.
[2] Belaoussoff S, Kevan PG, Murphy S, Swanton C (2003) Assessing tillage disturbance on assemblages of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) by using a range of ecological indices. Biodiversity and Conservation, 12, 851-882.
[3] Bruno JF, Edmunds PJ (1997) Clonal variation for phenotypic plasticity in the coral Madracis mirabilis. Ecology, 78, 2177-2190.
[4] Done TJ (1999) Coral community adaptability to environmental change at the scales of regions, reefs and reef zones. American Zoologist, 39, 66-79.
[5] Dong ZJ, Huang H, Huang LM, Li YC, Shi X (2009) Symbiotic algae in two scleractinian corals: molecular phylogeny and their response to elevated temperatures. Acta Oceanologica Sinica, 31, 141-148. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[董志军, 黄晖, 黄良民, 李元超, 时翔 (2009) 两种造礁石珊瑚共生藻分子系统分类及其对水温升高的响应研究. 海洋学报, 31, 141-148.]
[6] Forsman ZH, Concepcion GT, Haverkort RD, Shaw RW, Maragos JE, Toonen RJ (2010) Ecomorph or endangered coral? DNA and microstructure reveal Hawaiian species complexes: Montipora dilatata/flabellata/turgescens & M. patula/verrilli. PLoS ONE, 5, e15021.
[7] Fukami H, Budd AF, Paulay G, Solé-Cava A, Chen CA, Iwao K, Knowlton N (2004) Conventional taxonomy obscures deep divergence between Pacific and Atlantic corals. Nature, 427, 832-835.
[8] Huang H, You F, Lian JS, Zhang CL, Yang JH, Li XB, Yuan T, Dong ZJ (2012) Composition and distribution of scleractinian coral in the northwest of Hainan Island. Marine Sciences, 36, 64-74. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[黄晖, 尤丰, 练健生, 张成龙, 杨剑辉, 李秀保, 袁涛, 董志军 (2012) 海南岛西北部海域珊瑚礁造礁石珊瑚种类组成与分布. 海洋科学, 36, 64-74.]
[9] Hughes TP, Baird AH, Bellwood DR, Card M, Connolly SR, Folke C, Grosberg R, Hoegh-Guldberg O, Jackson JBC, Kleypas J, Lough JM, Marshall P, Nyström M, Palumbi SR, Pandolfi JM, Rosen B, Roughgarden J (2003) Climate change, human impacts, and the resilience of coral reefs. Science, 301, 929-933.
[10] Lü BQ, Wang GZ, Quan SQ (1984) The characteristic of fringing reefs of Hainan Island. Geographical Research, 3, 1-16. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[吕炳全, 王国忠, 全松青 (1984) 海南岛珊瑚岸礁的特征. 地理研究, 3, 1-16.]
[11] Niu WT, Xu XZ, Lin RC, Huang DY (2010a) Effects of sedimentation on coral reefs and reef organisms. Marine Science Bulletin, 29, 106-112. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[牛文涛, 徐宪忠, 林荣澄, 黄丁勇 (2010a) 沉积物对珊瑚礁及礁区生物的影响. 海洋通报, 29, 106-112.]
[12] Niu WT, Zhang XX, Lin RC, Wang CS (2010b) Diversity and distribution of coral species along the Changjiang coastal waters, Hainan Province. Journal of Oceanography in Taiwan Strait, 29, 389-393. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[牛文涛, 张潇娴, 林荣澄, 王初升 (2010b) 海南昌江沿岸海域石珊瑚的物种多样性及其分布. 台湾海峡, 29, 389-393.]
[13] Romano SL, Palumbi SR (1996) Evolution of scleractinian corals inferred from molecular systematics. Science, 271, 640-642.
[14] Schlöder C, D’Croz L (2004) Responses of massive and branching coral species to the combined effects of water temperature and nitrate enrichment. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 313, 255-268.
[15] Shannon EC, Weaver W (1949) The Mathematical Theory of Communication. Urbana University of Illinois Press, Illinois.
[16] Spalding MD, Ravilious C, Creen EP (2001) World Atlas of Coral Reefs, pp. 9-28. University of California Press, Berkeley.
[17] Todd PA (2008) Morphological plasticity in scleractinian corals. Biological Reviews, 83, 315-337.
[18] Veron JEN (2000) Corals of the World. Australian Institute of Marine Science Press, Townsville.
[19] Wang DR, Wang HJ, Li YC, Yang Y, Liang W (2011) Preliminary study of coral larvae supplementary source around Leizhou Peninsula. Journal of Tropical Oceanography, 30, 26-32. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[王道儒, 王华接, 李元超, 杨毅, 梁文 (2011) 雷州半岛珊瑚幼虫补充来源初步研究. 热带海洋学报, 30, 26-32.]
[20] Wang LR, Zhao HT (2001) The general characteristics of the coral reef ecosystem. Chinese Journal of Ecology, 20, 41-45. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[王丽荣, 赵焕庭 (2001) 珊瑚礁生态系的一般特点. 生态学杂志, 20, 41-45.]
[21] Wu ZJ, Chen SQ, Chen M, Li YC, Wang Q, Wang DR (2013) Preliminary survey and analysis of the resources of hermatypic corals in Hainan Island. Transactions of Oceanology and Limnology, 35(2), 44-50. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[吴钟解, 陈石泉, 陈敏, 李元超, 王茜, 王道儒 (2013) 海南岛造礁石珊瑚资源初步调查与分析. 海洋湖沼通报, 35(2), 44-50.]
[22] Wu ZJ, Li CP, Chen M, Zhang GX, Li YC (2012) Investigation of marine resources and the study of conservation strategies in Dazhou Island Ocean-ecology National Nature Reserves. Ocean Development and Management, 29, 97-100. (in Chinese)
[吴钟解, 李成攀, 陈敏, 张光星, 李元超 (2012) 大洲岛国家级自然保护区海洋资源调查及其管理保护机制探讨. 海洋开发与管理, 29, 97-100.]
[23] Yang C, Yang YH, Song PX, Li HW (2011) Diversity of coral species along the Yunlong Bay coastal waters in Longlou Town of Wenchang City. Journal of Hainan Normal University (Natural Science), 24, 201-203. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[杨晨, 杨亚辉, 宋培学, 李洪武 (2011) 海南省文昌市龙楼镇云龙湾石珊瑚的物种多样性调查. 海南师范大学学报(自然科学版), 24, 201-203.]
[24] Yu DP, Zou RL (1995) General situation, problems and prospects of studies on scleratinian coral community structure. Chinese Biodiversity, 3, 26-30. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[于登攀, 邹仁林 (1995) 造礁石珊瑚群落结构研究的概况、问题和前景. 生物多样性, 3, 26-30.]
[25] Yu DP, Zou RL (1996) Current situation and dynamics of species diversity in hermatypic coral community on Luhuitou fringing reef. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 16, 559-564. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[于登攀, 邹仁林 (1996) 鹿回头造礁石珊瑚群落多样性的现状及动态. 生态学报, 16, 559-564.]
[26] Zhao MX, Yu KF, Zhang QM, Shi Q (2009) Evolution and its environmental significance of coral diversity on Luhuitou fringing reef, Sanya. Marine Environmental Science, 28, 125-130. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[赵美霞, 余克服, 张乔民, 施祺 (2009) 近50 a来三亚石珊瑚物种多样性的演变特征及其环境意义. 海洋环境科学, 28, 125-130.]
[27] Zhao MX, Yu KF, Zhang QM, Shi Q (2011) Evaluating the sustainability of coral reefs in Sanya of Hainan Island using marine ecological footprint. Journal of Tropical Oceanography, 30, 74-80. (in Chinese with English abstract)
[赵美霞, 余克服, 张乔民, 施祺 (2011) 应用海洋生态足迹评价三亚珊瑚礁资源的可持续利用. 热带海洋学报, 30, 74-80.]
[28] Zhou ZG (2004) The research status and conservation strategy of coral reefs in Hainan. Ocean Development and Management, 21(6), 48-51. (in Chinese)
[周祖光 (2004) 海南珊瑚礁的现状与保护对策. 海洋开发与管理, 21(6), 48-51.]
[29] Zou RL (2001) Fauna Sinica: Invertebrata Coelenterata, Anthozoa, Scleractinian, Hermatypic Coral. Science Press, Beijing. (in Chinese)
[邹仁林 (2001) 中国动物志腔肠动物门珊瑚虫纲石珊瑚目造礁石珊瑚. 科学出版社, 北京.]
[1] 赵志霞,赵常明,邓舒雨,申国珍,谢宗强,熊高明,李俊清. (2020) 重度砍伐后极小种群野生植物崖柏群落结构动态. 生物多样性, 28(3): 333-339.
[2] 刘旻霞,李全弟,蒋晓轩,夏素娟,南笑宁,张娅娅,李博文. (2020) 甘南亚高寒草甸稀有种对物种多样性和物种多度分布格局的贡献. 生物多样性, 28(2): 107-116.
[3] 李熠,唐志尧,闫昱晶,王科,蔡磊,贺金生,古松,姚一建. (2020) 物种分布模型在大型真菌红色名录评估及保护中的应用: 以冬虫夏草为例. 生物多样性, 28(1): 99-106.
[4] 胡菀,张志勇,陈陆丹,彭焱松,汪旭. (2020) 末次盛冰期以来观光木的潜在地理分布变迁. 植物生态学报, 44(1): 44-55.
[5] 方文静,蔡琼,朱江玲,吉成均,岳明,郭卫华,张峰,高贤明,唐志尧,方精云. (2019) 华北地区落叶松林的分布、群落结构和物种多样性. 植物生态学报, 43(9): 742-752.
[6] 张雪皎, 高贤明, 吉成均, 康慕谊, 王仁卿, 岳明, 张峰, 唐志尧. (2019) 中国北方5种栎属树木多度分布及其对未来气候变化的响应. 植物生态学报, 43(9): 774-782.
[7] 吴盼,彭希强,杨树仁,高亚男,白丰桦,衣世杰,杜宁,郭卫华. (2019) 山东省滨海湿地柽柳种群的空间分布格局及其关联性. 植物生态学报, 43(9): 817-824.
[8] 唐丽丽,张梅,赵香林,康慕谊,刘鸿雁,高贤明,杨彤,郑璞帆,石福臣. (2019) 华北地区胡桃楸林分布规律及群落构建机制分析. 植物生态学报, 43(9): 753-761.
[9] 刘沿江,李雪阳,梁旭昶,刘炎林,程琛,李娟,汤飘飘,齐惠元,卞晓星,何兵,邢睿,李晟,施小刚,杨创明,薛亚东,连新明,阿旺久美,谢然尼玛,宋大昭,肖凌云,吕植. (2019) “在哪里”和“有多少”? 中国雪豹调查与空缺. 生物多样性, 27(9): 919-931.
[10] 唐丽丽,杨彤,刘鸿雁,康慕谊,王仁卿,张峰,高贤明,岳明,张梅,郑璞帆,石福臣. (2019) 华北地区荆条灌丛分布及物种多样性空间分异 规律. 植物生态学报, 43(9): 825-833.
[11] 史晓昀,施小刚,胡强,官天培,付强,张剑,姚蒙,李晟. (2019) 四川邛崃山脉雪豹与散放牦牛潜在分布重叠与捕食风险评估. 生物多样性, 27(9): 951-959.
[12] 李顺,邹亮,宫一男,杨海涛,王天明,冯利民,葛剑平. (2019) 激光雷达技术在动物生态学领域的研究进展. 生物多样性, 27(9): 1021-1031.
[13] 吕美林, 刘泽, 宋震, 王亚宁, 刘小勇. (2019) 大兴安岭地区可培养毛霉门真菌多样性与分布. 生物多样性, 27(8): 821-832.
[14] 任梅蓉, 杨秋霞, 魏鑫丽. (2019) 东北大小兴安岭地区梅衣科岛衣类和袋衣类地衣物种多样性. 生物多样性, 27(8): 833-841.
[15] 图力古尔, 王雪珊, 张鹏. (2019) 大小兴安岭地区伞菌和牛肝菌类区系. 生物多样性, 27(8): 867-873.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed