生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (4): 382-392.doi: 10.17520/biods.2017027

• 研究报告: 植物多样性 • 上一篇    下一篇

鼎湖山南亚热带常绿阔叶林林窗
分布格局及其成因

隋丹丹1, 2, 3, 王悦1, 2, 3, 练琚愉1, 2, *(), 张健4, 胡健波5, 欧阳学军1, 2, 范宗骥1, 2, 曹洪麟1, 2, 叶万辉1, 2   

  1. 1 中国科学院华南植物园退化生态系统植被恢复与管理重点实验室, 广州 510650
    2 中国科学院华南植物园广东省应用植物学重点实验室, 广州 510650
    3 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
    4 华东师范大学生态与环境科学学院, 上海 200241
    5 交通运输部天津水运工程科学研究所, 天津 300456
  • 收稿日期:2017-02-01 接受日期:2017-03-30 出版日期:2017-04-20
  • 通讯作者: 练琚愉 E-mail:lianjy@scbg.ac.cn
  • 作者简介:# 共同第一作者
  • 基金项目:
    基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(41371078, 31100312)和中国森林生物多样性监测网络项目

Gap distribution patterns in the south subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest of Dinghushan

Dandan Sui1, 2, 3, Yue Wang1, 2, 3, Juyu Lian1, 2, *(), Jian Zhang4, Jianbo Hu5, Xuejun Ouyang1, 2, Zongji Fan1, 2, Honglin Cao1, 2, Wanhui Ye1, 2   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Vegetation Restoration and Management of Degraded Ecosystems, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650
    2 Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Botany, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650
    3 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
    4 School of Ecological and Environmental Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241
    5 Tianjin Research Institute of Water Transport Engineering, Ministry of Transport, Tianjin 300456
  • Received:2017-02-01 Accepted:2017-03-30 Online:2017-04-20
  • Contact: Lian Juyu E-mail:lianjy@scbg.ac.cn
  • About author:# Co-first authors

林窗数量特征及其空间分布格局对南亚热带森林生态系统的动态变化、物种共存及生物多样性的维持等具有重要意义。本文基于鼎湖山南亚热带常绿阔叶林20 ha动态监测样地2015年的植被调查数据, 结合无人机航拍图像处理技术和地理信息系统, 分析了样地内林窗的几何特征和空间分布格局。结果表明: 该样地的林窗空隙率为13.72%, 密度为35.75个/ha, 平均面积38.37 m2。具体特征有: (1)区域内林窗数量随林窗面积的增加呈负指数分布, 整体表现为小林窗多、大林窗少的规律。(2)不同成熟度林分中, 过熟林林窗平均面积大于成熟林; 成熟林更能体现出小林窗多而大林窗少的特点。(3)各生境林窗分布与大样地整体表现出基本一致的规律, 但低谷与其他生境差异显著, 林窗平均面积、林窗空隙率等都大于其他生境, 而山脊林窗也在林窗空隙率与林窗密度方面低于其他生境。(4)林窗面积和地形因子显著相关: 与海拔和凹凸度呈显著负相关; 与坡度和坡向呈显著正相关。据此提出建立利用无人机进行森林群落林冠变化与格局的监测体系, 是实现林窗与林下群落动态变化同步监测的新手段。

关键词: 常绿阔叶林, 林窗密度, 林窗面积, 林窗空隙率, 轻量级无人机

Studying the dynamic characteristics, species coexistence and biodiversity conservation mechanisms of subtropical forest ecosystems is important in the study of the quantitative characteristics and spatial gap distribution patterns. Based on census data from the 20 ha dynamics plot of the subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest in Dinghushan in 2015, we analyzed the geometric characteristics and spatial distribution pattern of gaps in the plot by combining aerial image processing technology of unmanned aerial vehicles and GIS. Results show that the gap fraction is 13.72%, the gap density is 35.75 no./ha, and the average gap area is 38.37 m2. Results also show that: (1) The number of gaps in the area is negatively exponentially distributed with the increase of gap area, that is, the gap is small and the marginal effect is not significant. (2) The average area of ??forest gaps in over-mature forest stands is larger than that in mature forests, while the mature forest is more likely to have more small gaps and fewer large gaps. (3) In different habitats, the distribution of gaps in each habitat shows the same pattern as that found in the whole plot. However, the difference in the valley is significant when compared with other habitats, and gap area and gap density in the valley are larger than other habitats. The ridge gap is also distinctive, and its gap density is lower than other habitats. (4) Gap area is significantly correlated with topographic factors. It was significantly negatively correlated with altitude and convexity, and had a significantly positive correlation with aspect and gradient. Based on these comparative analyses, a monitoring system of forest canopy changes and patterns can be established using drones, to dynamically monitor forest gaps and the undergrowth community.

Key words: evergreen broad-leaved forest, gap density, gap area, gap fraction, drone

图1

鼎湖山南亚热带常绿阔叶林20 ha动态监测样地林窗空间分布特征"

图2

不同成熟度(A)及不同生境(B)中的林窗分布图。(A)粉色=成熟林; 蓝色=过熟林。(B)紫色=高谷; 蓝色=高坡; 粉色=山脊; 绿色=低谷; 黄色=低坡。"

表1

鼎湖山南亚热带常绿阔叶林20 ha动态监测样地林窗分类与数据特征"

林窗面积
Gap area (m2)
林窗数量
Gap number
数量比例
Quantity ratio
面积比例
Area ratio
林窗类型
Gap type
2-25 442 61.82% 19.08% 小林窗 Small gap
25-49 151 21.12% 19.37% 大林窗 Large gap
50-99 76 10.63% 19.24% 大林窗 Large gap
100-199 30 4.20% 14.51% 大林窗 Large gap
200-399 11 1.54% 11.01% 大林窗 Large gap
> 400 5 0.69% 16.79% 大林窗 Large gap
合计 Total 715 100% 100% -

表2

不同成熟度林分中的林窗空隙率和林窗密度"

类型 Type 数量比例 Quantity ratio 面积比例 Area ratio 空隙率 Gap fraction 密度 Gap density (no./ha)
小林窗
Small gap
大林窗
Large gap
小林窗
Small gap
大林窗
Large gap
小林窗
Small gap
大林窗
Large gap
小林窗
Small gap
大林窗
Large gap
过熟林
Over-mature forest
55.42% 44.58% 13.20% 86.80% 2.03% 13.31% 16.22 13.05
成熟林 Mature forest 65.70% 34.30% 24.20% 75.80% 3.09% 9.68% 26.95 14.06

表3

不同生境类型中的林窗数量和林窗空隙率"

生境类型 Habitat type 样地面积 Plot area (ha) 林窗数量 Gap number 林窗空隙率 Gap fraction 林窗平均面积
Average gap area (m2)
大样地 Whole plot 20 715 13.72% 38.37
高谷 High valley 3.08 151 10.45% 47.89
高坡 High slope 2.92 122 16.46% 41.56
山脊 Ridge 2.52 126 5.11% 26.75
低谷 Low valley 6.92 266 51.26% 56.27
低坡 Low slope 6.60 226 32.86% 36.64

表4

不同生境类型中的林窗空隙率及林窗密度"

生境类型
Habitat type
林窗数量比例
Quantity ratio (%)
林窗面积比例
Area ratio (%)
林窗空隙率
Gap fraction (%)
林窗密度
Gap density (no./ha)
小林窗
Small gap
大林窗
Large gap
小林窗
Small gap
大林窗
Large gap
小林窗
Small gap
大林窗
Large gap
小林窗
Small gap
大林窗
Large gap
大样地 Whole plot 61.81 38.19 19.08 80.92 2.62 11.10 22.10 13.65
高谷 High valley 58.28 41.72 14.02 85.98 1.47 8.98 12.72 9.10
高坡 High slope 59.02 40.98 17.57 82.43 2.89 13.57 23.38 16.23
山脊 Ridge 69.05 30.95 29.71 70.29 1.52 3.59 13.18 5.91
低谷 Low valley 49.62 50.38 11.59 88.41 5.94 45.32 45.21 45.89
低坡 Low slope 61.06 38.94 19.59 80.41 6.43 26.43 54.76 34.92

图3

不同生境中林窗面积的差异。不同字母表示差异显著。"

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