生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (1): 46-52.doi: 10.17520/biods.2016324

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云南佤族传统文化对蔬菜种质多样性的影响

邵桦, 薛达元*()   

  1. 中央民族大学生命与环境科学学院, 北京 100081
  • 收稿日期:2016-11-16 接受日期:2016-12-31 出版日期:2017-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 薛达元 E-mail:xuedayuan@hotmail.com
  • 基金项目:
    教育部/国家外专局“111高等学校创新引智计划”(B08044)

Influence of traditional Wa culture on vegetable germplasm diversity in Yunnan Province

Hua Shao, Dayuan Xue*()   

  1. College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of China, Beijing 100081
  • Received:2016-11-16 Accepted:2016-12-31 Online:2017-01-20
  • Contact: Xue Dayuan E-mail:xuedayuan@hotmail.com

本文在实地调研的基础上, 对云南沧源县与西盟县传统蔬菜种质资源与佤族传统文化之间的关系进行了研究。结果表明: (1)佤族常用蔬菜110种, 隶属40科85属, 其中栽培蔬菜60种, 野生蔬菜50种。栽培蔬菜包括53个传统品种, 36个引进品种。(2) 1985-2015年来佤族种植蔬菜种类增多, 但传统蔬菜种类呈下降趋势。(3)佤族传统文化从食用蔬菜部位多样性、饮食习惯、祖先情怀、“药食同源”及传统留种换种方式等方面对蔬菜种质资源的保存与传承利用具有重要影响。本文还对传统文化与传统蔬菜种质资源的丧失及影响因素进行了分析, 提出应加强民族传统文化保护以促进当地传统蔬菜种质资源的保护与可持续利用。

关键词: 传统文化, 蔬菜种质资源, 佤族, 云南

Based on field studies, the relationship between traditional vegetable germplasm resources and the traditional culture of the Wa ethnic group in Cangyuan County and Ximeng County of Yunnan Province was explored. Results showed that there were 110 species of vegetable resources used by Wa people frequently, belonging to 40 families and 85 genera, containing 60 species of cultivated vegetables and 50 species of wild vegetables. Cultivated vegetables were divided into 53 traditional cultivars and 36 introduced cultivars. During 1985-2015, home-grown vegetable cultivars used by the Wa people increased, but the cultivars of traditional vegetables decreased. The traditional culture of the Wa people, characterized by diversified utilization of vegetables’ edible parts, eating habits, respect to ancestors, the “homology of medicine and food” and traditional seed reserve and exchange methods, played an important role in the conservation and utilization of vegetable germplasm resources. This paper also analyzed the possible loss and influence factors of traditional vegetable germplasm resources, and suggestions were proposed for strengthening the protection of the traditional ethnic culture, and subsequently, promotion of the protection and sustainable utilization of local traditional vegetable germplasm resources.

Key words: traditional culture, vegetable germplasm resources, Wa people, Yunnan Province

表1

云南佤族利用的野生蔬菜资源"

种 Species 地方名称 Local name 科 Family 食用部位 Edible parts 食用方法 Edible methods
羽叶金合欢 Acacia pennata 臭菜 Plume acacia 豆科
Leguminosae
嫩茎叶、嫩梢
Tender leaf, stem and shoots
凉拌、与鸡蛋炒食
Salad, fry with eggs
刺五加 Acanthopanax trifoliatus 刺五加
Trifoliate acanthopanax
五加科
Araliaceae
嫩茎叶 Tender leaf and stem 炒食 Fry
楤木 Aralia chinensis 刺老包
Chinese aralia
五加科
Araliaceae
嫩芽、叶 Tender leaf and bud 炒食、凉拌 Fry, salad
落葵 Basella alba 木耳菜
White vinespinach
落葵科
Basellaceae
嫩茎叶 Tender leaf and stem 煮食、炒食、做汤 Boil, fry, soup
白花羊蹄甲 Bauhinia acuminata 大白花
Snowy bauhinia
豆科
Leguminosae
花 Flower 开水漂洗后煮食、炒食 Boil, fry
密蒙花 Buddleja officinalis 染饭花
Pale butterflybush
马钱科
Loganiaceae
花 Flower 黄色食品染料
A yellow dye for food dyeing
番木瓜 Carica papaya 木瓜
Papaya
番木瓜科
Caricaceae
果实、嫩茎叶、花序
Fruit, tender leaf, stem, inflorescence
生食凉拌 Salad
积雪草 Centella asiatica 马蹄金
Asiatica pennywort
伞形科
Umbelliferae
全草 Whole plant 生食、炒食或做汤
Raw eating, fry, soup
水蕨 Ceratopteris thalictroides 水蕨
Floating fern
水蕨科
Parkeriaceae
嫩茎叶 Tender leaf and stem 炒食 Fry
野茼蒿 Crassocephalum crepidioides 革命菜/民国菜
Redflower ragleaf
菊科
Compositae
嫩茎叶、幼苗
Tender leaf, stem and seedling
炒食、煮食、凉拌
Fry, boil, salad
树头菜 Crateva unilocularis 鸡爪菜
Crateva
山柑科
Capparaceae
嫩叶和茎梢 Tender leaf and shoots 炒食、凉拌 Fry, salad
柠檬草 Cymbopogon citratus 香茅草
Lemongrass
禾本科
Gramineae
嫩茎叶 Tender leaf and stem 香料 Spice
树番茄 Cyphomandra betacea 树番茄
Treetomao
茄科
Solanaceae
果实 Fruit 生食、凉拌、炒食
Eat raw, salad, fry
版纳甜龙竹 Dendrocalamus hamiltonii 甜笋
Hamilton dendrocalamus
禾本科
Gramineae
初生、嫩肥、短壮的芽或鞭
Tender shoots
凉拌、炒食、煮食
Salad, fry, boil
水香薷 Elsholtzia kachinensis 水香菜
Kachin elsholtzia
唇形科
Labiatae
嫩茎叶 Tender leaf and stem 生食或做汤 Eat raw, soup
枇杷 Eriobotrya japonica 枇杷
Loguat
蔷薇科
Rosaceae
叶 Leaf 切丝生用 Shred and raw eating
芝麻菜 Eruca sativa 芝麻菜
Roquette
十字花科
Cruciferae
嫩茎叶 Tender leaf and stem 炒食 Fry
刺芹 Eryngium foetidum 阿佤芫荽
Foecid eryngo
伞形科
Umbelliferae
全株或嫩茎叶
Whole plant or tender leaf and stem
佐料 Seasoning
三桠苦 Evodia lepta 小黄散
Thin evodia
芸香科
Rutaceae
叶 Leaf 烘干后做汤 Drying for soup
矮萱草 Hemerocallis nana 黄花菜
Little daylily
百合科
Liliaceae
花 Flower 炒食、煮食 Fry, boil
蕺菜 Houttuynia cordata 折耳根/鱼腥草
Heartleaf houttuynia
三白草科
Saururaceae
根茎、嫩茎叶
Root, stem and tender shoots
凉拌、炒食、腌渍、煮汤
Salad, fry, pickle, soup
马兰 Kalimeris indica 鸡儿菜
India kalimeris
菊科
Compositae
嫩叶、幼苗
Tender leaf and seedling
炒食、凉拌 Fry, salad
山鸡椒 Litsea cubeba 木姜子
Fragrant litse
樟科
Lauraceae
嫩茎叶、果实
Tender leaf, stem and fruit
佐料 Seasoning
杧果 Mangifera indica 杧果
Mango
漆树科
Anacardiaceae
果实 Fruit 生食、腌渍
Raw eating, pickle
火烧花 Mayodendron igneum 炮仗花
Brightred mayodendron
紫葳科
Bignoniaceae
鲜花 Fresh flower 开水焯后炒食
Fry after boiling
树头芭蕉 Musa wilsonii 芭蕉
Wilson banana
芭蕉科
Musaceae
假茎和嫩叶、花序
Tender leaf, stem and inflorescence
炒食 Fry
水芹 Oenanthe javanica 水芹菜/野芹菜
Bengal water dropwort
伞形科
Umbelliferae
嫩茎、叶柄、花茎
Tender leaf, stem, petiole and flower
炒食、凉拌 Fry, salad
木蝴蝶 Oroxylum indium 海船
India trumpetflower
紫葳科
Bignoniaceae
花、幼嫩的果、嫩叶
Flower, tender leaf and fruit
嫩叶焯水舂食、嫩果炒食或腌渍
Pound leaf, fry or pickle fruit
海菜花 Ottelia acuminata 海白菜
Yunnan ottelia
水鳖科
Hydrocharitaceae
花、嫩叶 Flower and tender leaf 炒食 Fry
连蕊藤 Parabaena sagittata 犁板菜
Sagittate parabaena
防己科
Menispermaceae
嫩茎叶 Tender leaf and stem 炒食或做汤 Fry, soup
黄花胡椒 Piper flaviflorum 野芦子
Flaviflorum pepper
胡椒科
Piperaceae
老茎 Old stem 佐料 Seasoning
车前 Plantago asiatica 车前草
Asiatic plantain
车前科
Plantaginaceae
幼株、嫩叶芽
Tender leaf, bud, whole plant
凉拌、炒食、煮食
Salad, fry, boil
苦竹 Pleioblastus amarus 苦笋
Amarus pleioblastus
禾本科
Gramineae
初生、嫩肥、短壮的芽或鞭
Tender shoots
凉拌、炒食、腌渍
Salad, fry, pickle
种 Species 地方名称 Local name 科 Family 食用部位 Edible parts 食用方法 Edible methods
鸡蛋花 Plumeria rubra Acutifolia 马鹿角
Mexican frangipani
夹竹桃科
Apocynaceae
花、茎 Flower and stem 花瓣炸食、茎枝切片与猪脚煮食
Fry petals, boil stem
香蓼 Polygonum viscosum 香蓼
Viscidhairy knotweed
蓼科
Polygonaceae
嫩茎叶 Tender leaf and stem 佐料 Seasoning
马齿苋 Portulaca oleracea 马齿苋
Purslane
马齿苋科
Portulacaceae
嫩茎叶 Tender leaf and stem 沸水焯水后凉拌、炒食
Salad, fry
欧洲蕨 Pteridium aquilinum 龙须菜
Bracken fern
蕨科
Pteridiaceae
嫩芽叶 Tender leaf and bud 沸水焯水后凉拌、炒食
Salad, fry
盐肤木 Rhus chinensis 盐肤木
Chinese sumac
漆树科
Anacardiaceae
果实及嫩茎叶
Fruit, tender leaf and stem
果实舂后泡水、凉拌菜的酸源
An acid source for salad
千年不烂心 Solanum cathayanum 苦子
Chinese nightshade
茄科
Solanaceae
果实 Fruit 炒食 Fry
野茄 Solanum coagulans 苦茄
Wild nightshade
茄科
Solanaceae
果实 Fruit 炒食 Fry
刺天茄 Solanum indicum 苦果
Indian nightshade
茄科
Solanaceae
果实 Fruit 炒食 Fry
龙葵 Solanum nigrum 天茄子
Dwarf nightshade
茄科
Solanaceae
嫩叶 Tender leaf 炒食 Fry
少花龙葵 Solanum photeinocarpum 苦凉菜
Violet nightshade
茄科
Solanaceae
幼苗、嫩茎叶
Tender bud, leaf and stem
开水漂烫后凉拌、炒食、做汤
Salad, fry, soup
水茄 Solanum torvum 刺茄
Water nightshade
茄科
Solanaceae
嫩果实 Tender fruit 炒食、油煎 Fry and oil fry
苦苣菜 Sonchus oleraceus 苦苦菜
Common sowthistle
菊科
Compositae
嫩茎叶 Tender leaf and stem 炒食、做汤 Fry, soup
甘露子 Stachys sieboldii 宝塔菜
Chinese artichoke
唇形科
Labiatae
嫩茎叶 Tender leaf and stem 炒食 Fry
蒲公英 Taraxacum mongolicum 蒲公英
Mongolian dandelion
菊科
Compositae
叶、根 Leaf and root 凉拌、炒食、做汤
Salad, fry, soup
苦果 Trevesia palmata 刺通草
Himalayan trevesia
五加科
Araliaceae
嫩果实 Fruit 嫩果水煮后捣烂食用
Boiled and pounded
马鞭草 Verbena officinalis 龙芽草
European verbena
马鞭草科
Verbenaceae
嫩茎叶 Tender leaf and stem 炒食、煮食
Fry, boil
Zizania latifolia 茭白
Fewflower wildrice
禾本科
Gramineae
肉质茎 Succulent stem 炒食或凉拌 Fry, salad

表2

云南佤族传统栽培蔬菜种质资源"

种名
Species
地方品种名
Local cultivar names
种名
Species
地方品种名
Local cultivar names
藠头 Allium chinense 藠头 Rokkyo 黄瓜 Cucumis sativus 地黄瓜、爬架黄瓜、老鼠黄瓜
Ground cucumber, shelf cucumber, mouse-like cucumber
苤菜 Allium hookeri 苤菜 Hooker onion 南瓜 Cucurbita moschata 本地小南瓜、金瓜、老缅南瓜
Local small pumpkin, gold pumpkin, Laos-Burma pumpkin
Allium sativum 白皮蒜、永广大蒜、紫皮蒜
White garlic, Yongguang garlic, violet garlic
薯蓣 Dioscorea batatas 山药、细山药、紫山药
Chinese yam, thin Chinese yam, purple Chinese yam
细香葱 Allium schoenoprasum 小香葱 Small chive 八角 Illicium verum 八角 Anise
Allivm tuberosum 细叶韭菜 Spire leek 丝瓜 Luffa cylindrical 本地丝瓜 Local towel gourd
Amaranthus tricolor 薏米菜 Yimi edible amaranth 番茄 Lycopersicon esculentum 细番茄、小番茄
Thin tomato, small tomato
花蘑芋 Amorphophallus konjac 魔芋 Konjak 薄荷 Mentha haplocalyx 薄荷 Mint
冬瓜 Benincasa hispida 老缅冬瓜 Laos-Burma wax gourd 苦瓜 Momordica charantia 勐阿苦瓜 Menge bitter gourd
节瓜 Benincasa hispida var. chiehqua 小冬瓜 Small wax gourd 荆芥 Nepeta cataria 金戒子 Tenuifolia
芥菜 Brassica juncea 大青菜、佤族青菜、紫青菜
Chinese cabbage, Wa cabbage, violet cabbage
紫苏 Perilla frutescens 白苏子、黑苏子
White perilla, black perilla
蕉芋 Canna edulis 蕉芋 Banana-like taro 豌豆 Pisum sativum 豌豆 Pea
朝天椒 Capsicum annuum var. conoides 朝天辣、小寨辣
Upturned pepper, Xiaozhai pepper
佛手瓜 Sechium edule 佛手瓜 Chocho
簇生椒 Capsicum annuum var. fasciculatum 他朗辣子 Talang pepper 茄子 Solanum melongena 本地白茄、本地紫茄 Local white eggplant, local voilet eggplant
小米辣 Capsicum frutescens 白皮小米辣、小米辣、老鼠屎辣、涮涮辣 White pepper, Xiaomi pepper, mouse dung-like pepper, Shuanshuan pepper 香椿 Toona sinensis 香椿 Chinese toon
Colocasia esculenta 班帅芋头、那卡大麻芋、紫芋
Banshuai taro, Naka big taro, violet taro
豇豆 Vigna unguiculata 本地豆角 Local cowpea
大野芋 Colocasia gigantea 滴水芋 Dishui taro 花椒 Zanthoxylum bungeanum 花椒 Pepper
芫荽 Coriandrum sativum 细叶芫荽 Spire Chinese parsley Zingiber officinale 黄姜 Yellow ginger

图1

1985-2015年佤族村寨平均家庭栽培蔬菜品种数量 变化"

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