生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (1): 46-52.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2016324

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云南佤族传统文化对蔬菜种质多样性的影响

邵桦, 薛达元*()   

  1. 中央民族大学生命与环境科学学院, 北京 100081
  • 收稿日期:2016-11-16 接受日期:2016-12-31 出版日期:2017-01-20 发布日期:2017-02-08
  • 通讯作者: 薛达元
  • 基金资助:
    教育部/国家外专局“111高等学校创新引智计划”(B08044)

Influence of traditional Wa culture on vegetable germplasm diversity in Yunnan Province

Hua Shao, Dayuan Xue*()   

  1. College of Life and Environmental Sciences, Minzu University of China, Beijing 100081
  • Received:2016-11-16 Accepted:2016-12-31 Online:2017-01-20 Published:2017-02-08
  • Contact: Xue Dayuan

摘要:

本文在实地调研的基础上, 对云南沧源县与西盟县传统蔬菜种质资源与佤族传统文化之间的关系进行了研究。结果表明: (1)佤族常用蔬菜110种, 隶属40科85属, 其中栽培蔬菜60种, 野生蔬菜50种。栽培蔬菜包括53个传统品种, 36个引进品种。(2) 1985-2015年来佤族种植蔬菜种类增多, 但传统蔬菜种类呈下降趋势。(3)佤族传统文化从食用蔬菜部位多样性、饮食习惯、祖先情怀、“药食同源”及传统留种换种方式等方面对蔬菜种质资源的保存与传承利用具有重要影响。本文还对传统文化与传统蔬菜种质资源的丧失及影响因素进行了分析, 提出应加强民族传统文化保护以促进当地传统蔬菜种质资源的保护与可持续利用。

关键词: 传统文化, 蔬菜种质资源, 佤族, 云南

Abstract:

Based on field studies, the relationship between traditional vegetable germplasm resources and the traditional culture of the Wa ethnic group in Cangyuan County and Ximeng County of Yunnan Province was explored. Results showed that there were 110 species of vegetable resources used by Wa people frequently, belonging to 40 families and 85 genera, containing 60 species of cultivated vegetables and 50 species of wild vegetables. Cultivated vegetables were divided into 53 traditional cultivars and 36 introduced cultivars. During 1985-2015, home-grown vegetable cultivars used by the Wa people increased, but the cultivars of traditional vegetables decreased. The traditional culture of the Wa people, characterized by diversified utilization of vegetables’ edible parts, eating habits, respect to ancestors, the “homology of medicine and food” and traditional seed reserve and exchange methods, played an important role in the conservation and utilization of vegetable germplasm resources. This paper also analyzed the possible loss and influence factors of traditional vegetable germplasm resources, and suggestions were proposed for strengthening the protection of the traditional ethnic culture, and subsequently, promotion of the protection and sustainable utilization of local traditional vegetable germplasm resources.

Key words: traditional culture, vegetable germplasm resources, Wa people, Yunnan Province