生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (3): 332-339.doi: 10.17520/biods.2016276

• • 上一篇    下一篇

云南泸水高黎贡山高山生境的鸟兽多样性

高歌1, 王斌2, 何臣相2, 罗旭1, *()   

  1. 1 .西南林业大学西南地区生物多样性保育国家林业局重点实验室, 昆明 650224
    2.云南高黎贡山国家级自然保护区泸水管理局, 云南泸水 673100
  • 收稿日期:2016-09-29 接受日期:2017-01-11 出版日期:2017-03-20
  • 通讯作者: 罗旭 E-mail:xu_luo@aliyun.com
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(31660612)、云南省极小种群物种拯救保护项目(2015)和云南省林学一流学科建设项目资助

Biodiversity of birds and mammals in alpine habitat of Mt. Gaoligong, Lushui County, Yunnan

Ge Gao1, Bin Wang2, Chenxiang He2, Xu Luo1, *()   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Biodiversity Conservation in Southwest China of State Forestry Administration, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224
    2 Lushui Management Bureau of Gaoligongshan National Nature Reserve, Lushui, Yunnan 673100
  • Received:2016-09-29 Accepted:2017-01-11 Online:2017-03-20
  • Contact: Luo Xu E-mail:xu_luo@aliyun.com

高黎贡山位于印缅生物多样性保护热点地区, 但由于地形复杂、交通不便等客观原因的限制, 以往对高黎贡山高山生境的鸟兽多样性调查数据较为缺乏。2014年10月至2016年6月, 我们利用红外相机在高黎贡山高山环境开展鸟类和兽类物种多样性调查, 以期对鸟兽多样性数据进行补充。调查期间, 于泸水辖区内选取北(金满)、中(听命湖)、南(片马垭口) 3个样区, 每个样区布设20台红外相机。累计布设红外相机10,400台日, 拍摄到1,342张有效照片。共记录到18种兽类和44种鸟类, 分属9目28科, 包括3种国家一级、8种国家二级重点保护动物, IUCN濒危(EN)物种3种、易危(VU)物种3种、近危(NT)物种2种。相对丰富度较高的物种包括金色林鸲(Tarsiger chrysaeus)、血雉(Ithaginis cruentus)、光背地鸫(Zoothera mollissima)、灰颈鼠兔(Ochotona forresti)、小熊猫(Ailurus fulgens)等。记录到高黎贡山鸟类新记录1种: 黑胸歌鸲(Luscinia pectoralis)。金满样区1个年周期的监测结果显示, 高黎贡山高山生境鸟兽物种多样性有季节差异, 在5-10月动物活动频繁, 垂直迁移和鸟类的秋季迁徙对高山物种组成影响较大。本调查对高黎贡山高山环境的鸟兽多样性进行了有效补充, 可为高黎贡山高山鸟兽物种的保护和管理提供科学依据。

关键词: 高黎贡山, 高山生境, 红外相机, 物种丰富度

Gaoligong Mountains, known for its richest biodiversity, locates in the Indo-Burma Biodiversity Hotspot. However, our knowledge of the fauna in the alpine habitat of Mt. Gaoligong is still lacking due to complex terrain and poor accessibility. From October 2014 to June 2016, infrared cameras were established to monitor the biodiversity of mammals and birds in the alpine habitat of Mt. Gaoligong, Lushui County, Yunnan. In this survey, we selected three sample plots, North (Jinman), Central (Tingming Lake), and South (Pianma Pass), and in each sample plot, 20 cameras were established for 10,400 camera trapping days and 1,342 effective images were obtained. We identified 18 species of mammals and 44 species of birds belonging to 9 orders and 28 families, including 11 species listed as State Key Protected Wild Animals. The most abundant species was Tarsiger chrysaeus, along with Ithaginis cruentus, Zoothera mollissima, Ochotona forresti, and Ailurus fulgens. Luscinia pectoralis was recorded for the first time in Mt. Gaoligong. A one year survey at the Jinman sample plot revealed that faunal diversity in the alpine habitat had strongly seasonality, i.e. the months from May to October had much higher abundance than the other months. This was a consequence of the high immigration rate to alpine habitats during this period due to altitudinal movement and autumn migration. This survey is the first time to use infrared cameras for alpine faunal surveys at Mt Gaoligong, and the generated data provided a scientific basis for the protection and management of this nature reserve.

Key words: Mt. Gaoligong, alpine habitat, camera traps, species richness

图1

研究地位置与相机布设位点"

图2

物种有效照片数月间变化"

图3

鸟兽物种数的月变化"

1 Carbone C, Christie S, Conforti K, Coulson T, Franklin N, Ginsberg JR, Griffiths M, Holden J, Kawanishi K, Kinnaird M, Laidlaw R, Lynam A, Macdonald DW, Martyr D, McDougal C, Nath L, O’Brien T, Seidensticker J, Smith DJL, Sunquist M, Tilson R, Wan Shahruddin WN (2001) The use of photographic rates to estimate densities of tigers and other cryptic mammals. Animal Conservation, 4, 75-79.
2 Chaplin G (2005) Physical geography of the Gaoligong Shan area of Southwest China in relation to biodiversity. Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 56, 527-556.
3 Chen YX, Xiao ZS, Li M, Wang XW, He CX, He GP, Li HS, Shi SJ, Xiang ZF (2016) Preliminary survey for the biodiversity of mammal and bird using camera traps in the west of mid-section Mt. Gaoligong. Acta Theriologica Sinica, 36, 302-312.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[陈奕欣, 肖治术, 李明, 王新文, 何臣相, 何贵品, 李海曙, 施顺金, 向左甫 (2016) 利用红外相机对高黎贡山中段西坡兽类和鸟类多样性初步调查. 兽类学报 36, 302-312.]
4 Corbet GB, Hill JE (1992) The Mammals of the Indomalayan Region: A Systematic Review, pp. 306-320. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
5 Dong TC, Chu HJ, Wu HP, Wang Y, Ge Y, Bu L (2014) Monitoring birds and mammals through camera traps in Mount Kalamaili Ungulate Nature Reserve, Xinjiang. Biodiversity Science, 22, 804-807.(in Chinese)
[董潭成, 初红军, 吴洪潘, 王渊, 葛炎, 布兰 (2014) 卡拉麦里山有蹄类自然保护区鸟兽的红外相机监测. 生物多样性 22, 804-807.]
6 Dumbacher JP, Miller J, Flannery ME, Yang XJ (2011) Avifauna of the Gaoligong Shan Mountains of western China: a hotspot of avian species diversity. Ornithological Monographs, 70, 30-63.
7 Han LX, Huang SL, Luo X, Yang HJ (2004) The distribution and conservation of Sclater’s monal in Yunnan, China. Biodiversity Science, 12, 523-527.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[韩联宪, 黄石林, 罗旭, 杨红军 (2004) 云南白尾梢虹雉的分布与保护. 生物多样性 12, 523-527.]
8 Hu G (1998) A preliminary study on the bionomic strategies of the red panda in Gaoligong Mountains. Zoological Research, 19, 358, 366.(in Chinese)
[胡刚 (1998) 高黎贡山小熊猫生态对策的初步研究. 动物学研究, 19 358, 366.]
9 Hu L, Xie WH, Shang T, Jiang BK, Xiao ZS (2016) Preliminary survey for mammal and bird diversity using camera traps in the Longxi-Hongkou National Nature Reserve of Sichuan Province, Southwest China. Acta Theriologica Sinica, 36, 330-337.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[胡力, 谢文华, 尚涛, 姜丙坤, 肖治术 (2016) 龙溪-虹口国家级自然保护区兽类和鸟类多样性红外相机调查结果初报. 兽类学报 36, 330-337.]
10 IUCN (2016) The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, Version2015-4. . (accessed on 2016- 07-25
11 Jiang ZG, Jiang JP, Wang YZ, Zhang E, Zhang YY, Li LL, Xie F, Cai B, Cao L, Zheng GM, Dong L, Zhang ZW, Ding P, Luo ZH, Ding CQ, Ma ZJ, Tang SH, Cao WX, Li CW, Hu HJ, Ma Y, Wu Y, Wang YX, Zhou KY, Liu SY, Chen YY, Li JT, Feng ZJ, Wang Y, Wang B, Li C, Song XL, Cai L, Zang CX, Zeng Y, Meng ZB, Fang HX, Ping XG (2016) Red List of China’s vertebrates. Biodiversity Science, 24, 500-551.(in Chinese and in English)
[蒋志刚, 江建平, 王跃招, 张鹗, 张雁云, 李立立, 谢锋, 蔡波, 曹亮, 郑光美, 董路, 张正旺, 丁平, 罗振华, 丁长青, 马志军, 汤宋华, 曹文宣, 李春旺, 胡慧建, 马勇, 吴毅, 王应祥, 周开亚, 刘少英, 陈跃英, 李家堂, 冯祚建, 王燕, 王斌, 李成, 宋雪琳, 蔡蕾, 臧春鑫, 曾岩, 孟智斌, 方红霞, 平晓鸽 (2016) 中国脊椎动物红色名录. 生物多样性 24, 500-551.]
12 Jiang ZG, Ma Y, Wu Y, Wang YX, Feng ZJ, Zhou KY, Liu SY, Luo ZH, Li CW (2015) China’s mammalian diversity. Biodiversity Science, 23, 351-364.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[蒋志刚, 马勇, 吴毅, 王应祥, 冯祚建, 周开亚, 刘少英, 罗振华, 李春旺 (2015) 中国哺乳动物多样性. 生物多样性 23, 351-364.]
13 Lan D, Dunbar R (2000) Bird and mammal conservation in Gaoligongshan Region and Jingdong County, Yunnan, China: patterns of species richness and nature reserves. Oryx, 34, 275-286.
14 Li S, Wang DJ, Xiao ZS, Li XH, Wang TM, Feng LM, Wang Y (2014) Camera-trapping in wildlife research and conservation in China: review and outlook. Biodiversity Science, 22, 685-695.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[李晟, 王大军, 肖治术, 李欣海, 王天明, 冯利民, 王云 (2014) 红外相机技术在我国野生动物研究与保护中的应用与前景. 生物多样性 22, 685-695.]
15 Liang D, Gao G, Wang B, Wang XW, Chen YX, Wu XR, Zhao C, Jiang DM, Han LX, Luo X (2015) The diversity and vertical distribution of the birds in middle Gaoligong Mountain, Yunnan. Sichuan Journal of Zoology, 34, 930-940.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[梁丹, 高歌, 王斌, 王新文, 陈奕欣, 吴新然, 赵超, 蒋德梦, 韩联宪, 罗旭 (2015) 云南高黎贡山中段鸟类多样性和垂直分布特征. 四川动物 34, 930-940.]
16 Liu F, Li DQ, Wu JG (2012) Using infrared cameras to survey wildlife in Beijing Songshan National Nature Reserve. Acta Ecologica Sinica, 32, 730-739.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[刘芳, 李迪强, 吴记贵 (2012) 利用红外相机调查北京松山国家级自然保护区的野生动物物种. 生态学报 32, 730-739.]
17 Liu F, Su XJ, Li DQ, Wang MZ, Zhang ZL (2014) Using camera trap to investigate animal diversity in Hunan Gaowangjie National Nature Reserve. Biodiversity Science, 22, 779-784.(in Chinese)
[刘芳, 宿秀江, 李迪强, 王木忠, 张自亮 (2014) 利用红外相机调查湖南高望界国家级自然保护区鸟兽多样性. 生物多样性 22, 779-784.]
18 Luo X, Han LX, Ai HS (2004) Preliminary report on the movement and habitat preference of Sclater’s monal at Mt. Gaoligong in winter. Zoological Research, 25, 48-52.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[罗旭, 韩联宪, 艾怀森 (2004) 高黎贡山冬季白尾梢虹雉运动方式和生境偏好的初步观察. 动物学研究 25, 48-52.]
19 Ma SL, Han LX, Lan DY, Ji WZ, Harris RB (1995) Faunal resources of the Gaoligongshan Region of Yunnan, China: diverse and Threatened. Environmental Conservation, 22, 250-258.
20 Ma SL, Harris RB (1996) Use of remote camera systems to document wildlife species presence in forested areas of Yunnan. Zoological Research, 17, 360-370.(in Chinese)
[马世来, Harris RB (1996) 自动感应照像系统在野生动物调查中的应用. 动物学研究 17, 360-370.]
21 MacKinnon J, Phillipps K, He FQ(2000) A Field Guide to the Birds of China. Hunan Education Publishing House, Changsha.(in Chinese)
[约翰·马敬能, 卡伦·菲利普斯, 何芬奇(2000) 中国鸟类野外手册. 湖南教育出版社, 长沙.]
22 Myers N, Mittermeier RA, Mittermeier CG, Fonseca GAB, Kent J (2000) Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature, 403, 853-858.
23 O’Brien TG, Kinnaird MF, Wibisono HT (2003) Crouching tigers, hidden prey: Sumatran tiger and prey populations in a tropical forest landscape. Animal Conservation, 6, 131-139.
24 O’Connell AF, Nichols JD, Karanth KU (2011) Camera Traps in Animal Ecology: Methods and Analyses. Springer-Verlag, New York.
25 Si XF, Ding P (2014) Camera trap survey on population dynamics of mammals and birds in Gutianshan forest dynamics plot, eastern China. Biodiversity Science, 22, 819-822.(in Chinese)
[斯幸峰, 丁平 (2014) 古田山森林动态监测样地内鸟兽种群动态的红外相机监测. 生物多样性 22, 819-822.]
26 Smith A, Xie Y, Hoffmann RS, Lunde D, MacKinnon J, Wilson DE, Wozencraft WC, Gemma F (2009) A Guide to the Mammals of China. Hunan Education Publishing House, Changsha.(in Chinese)
[Smith A, 解焱, Hoffmann RS, Lunde D, MacKinnon J, Wilson DE, Wozencraft WC, Gemma F (2009) 中国兽类野外手册. 湖南教育出版社, 长沙.]
27 Wang YX, Gong ZD, Duan XD (1988) A new species of Ochotona (Cochotonidae, Lagomorpha) from Mt. Gaoligong, Northwest Yunnan. Zoological Research, 9, 201-207.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[王应祥, 龚正达, 段兴德 (1988) 高黎贡山鼠兔一新种. 动物学研究, 9, 201-207.]
28 Wen LJ, Shi K, Huang J, Song Y, Guo YM (2014) Preliminary analysis of mammal and bird diversity monitored with camera traps in Medog, Tibet. Biodiversity Science, 22, 798-799.(in Chinese)
[温立嘉, 时坤, 黄建, 宋阳, 郭玉民 (2014) 西藏墨脱鸟兽红外相机监测初报. 生物多样性 22, 798-799.]
29 Wu JP, Luo H, Zhu XL, Li BZ, Liu WL, Ci P (2016) Monitoring mammals and birds with camera traps at different altitudes of Medog, Tibet. Biodiversity Science, 24, 351-354.(in Chinese)
[吴建普, 罗红, 朱雪林, 李炳章, 刘务林, 次平 (2016) 西藏墨脱不同海拔区鸟兽红外相机监测. 生物多样性 24, 351-354.]
30 Wu PF, Liu XH, Cai Q, He XB, Songer M, Zhu Y, Shao XM (2012) The application of infrared camera in mammal research in Guanyinshan Nature Reserve. Acta Theriologica Sinica, 32, 67-71.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[武鹏峰, 刘雪华, 蔡琼, 何祥博, Songer M, 朱云, 邵小明 (2012) 红外相机技术在陕西观音山自然保护区兽类监测研究中的应用. 兽类学报, 32, 67-71.]
31 Xiao ZS, Li XH, Jiang GS (2014) Applications of camera trapping to wildlife surveys in China. Biodiversity Science, 22, 683-684.(in Chinese)
[肖治术, 李欣海, 姜广顺 (2014) 红外相机技术在我国野生动物监测研究中的应用. 生物多样性, 22, 683-684.]
32 Xu ZH (1998) Nujiang Nature Reserve. Yunnan Fine Arts Publishing House, Kunming.(in Chinese)
[徐志辉 (1998) 怒江自然保护区. 云南美术出版社, 昆明.]
33 Xue JR (1995) Gaoligong Mountain National Nature Reserve. China Forestry Publishing House, Beijing.
(in Chinese) [薛纪如 (1995) 高黎贡山国家自然保护区. 中国林业出版社, 北京.]
34 Xue YD, Liu F, Guo TZ, Yuan L, Li DQ (2014) Using camera traps to survey wildlife at water sources on the northern slope of the Altun Mountains, China. Acta Theriologica Sinica, 34, 164-171.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[薛亚东, 刘芳, 郭铁征, 袁磊, 李迪强 (2014) 基于相机陷阱技术的阿尔金山北坡水源地鸟兽物种监测. 兽类学报 34, 164-171.]
35 Yang GR, Wang YX (1989) The list of rodents in Yunnan Province and its relationship with disease. Chinese Journal of Rodents Control, 5, 222-229.
(in Chinese) [杨光荣, 王应祥 (1989) 云南省啮齿类动物名录及与疾病的关系.中国鼠类防制杂志 5, 222-229.]
36 Yu FH, Yu FR, Guire PMM, Kilpatrick CW, Pang JF, Wang YX, Lu SQ, Woods CA (2004) Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of woolly flying squirrel (Rodentia: Sciuridae), inferred from mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 33, 735-744.
37 Zhang LB, Cui SP, Huang YJ, Chen DQ, Qiao HJ, Li CW, Jiang ZG (2014) Infrared camera traps in wildlife research and monitoring in China: issues and insights. Biodiversity Science, 22, 696-703.(in Chinese with English abstract)
[张履冰, 崔绍朋, 黄元骏, 陈代强, 乔慧捷, 李春旺, 蒋志刚 (2014) 红外相机技术在我国野生动物监测中的应用: 问题与限制.生物多样性 22, 696-703.]
38 Zhang MX, Cao L, Quan RC, Xiao ZS, Yang XF, Zhang WF, Wang XZ, Deng XB (2014) Camera trap survey of animals in Xishuangbanna forest dynamics plot, Yunnan. Biodiversity Science, 22, 830-832.(in Chinese)
[张明霞, 曹林, 权锐昌, 肖治术, 杨小飞, 张文富, 王学忠, 邓晓保 (2014) 利用红外相机监测西双版纳森林动态样地的野生动物多样性. 生物多样性 22, 830-832.]
39 Zheng GM (2011) A Checklist on the Classification and Distribution of the Birds of China, 2nd edn. Science Press, Beijing.
(in Chinese) [郑光美 (2011) 中国鸟类分类与分布名录, 第2版. 科学出版社, 北京.]
[1] 邹安龙, 马素辉, 倪晓凤, 蔡琼, 李修平, 吉成均. 模拟氮沉降对北京东灵山辽东栎群落林下植物物种多样性的影响[J]. 生物多样性, 2019, 27(6): 607-618.
[2] 刘艳, 杨钰爽. 生物多样性保护优先区对重庆苔藓植物多样性保护的重要性[J]. 生物多样性, 2019, 27(6): 677-682.
[3] 穆君, 王娇娇, 张雷, 李云波, 李筑眉, 粟海军. 贵州习水国家级自然保护区红外相机鸟兽监测及活动节律分析[J]. 生物多样性, 2019, 27(6): 683-688.
[4] 王渊, 李晟, 刘务林, 朱雪林, 李炳章. 西藏雅鲁藏布大峡谷国家级自然保护区金猫的色型类别与活动节律[J]. 生物多样性, 2019, 27(6): 638-647.
[5] 肖治术,陈立军,宋相金,束祖飞,肖荣高,黄小群. 基于红外相机技术对广东车八岭国家级自然保护区大中型兽类与雉类的编目清查与评估[J]. 生物多样性, 2019, 27(3): 237-242.
[6] 陈立军,肖文宏,肖治术. 物种相对多度指数在红外相机数据分析中的应用及局限[J]. 生物多样性, 2019, 27(3): 243-248.
[7] 肖文宏,束祖飞,陈立军,姚武韬,马勇,张应明,肖治术. 占域模型的原理及在野生动物红外相机研究中的应用案例[J]. 生物多样性, 2019, 27(3): 249-256.
[8] 肖文宏,胡力,黄小群,肖治术. 基于标记-重捕模型开展野生动物红外相机种群监测的方法及案例[J]. 生物多样性, 2019, 27(3): 257-265.
[9] 陈立军,束祖飞,肖治术. 应用红外相机数据研究动物活动节律——以广东车八岭保护区鸡形目鸟类为例[J]. 生物多样性, 2019, 27(3): 266-272.
[10] 任鹏,余建平,陈小南,申小莉,宋虓,张田田,余永泉,丁平. 古田山国家级自然保护区白颈长尾雉的分布格局及其季节变化[J]. 生物多样性, 2019, 27(1): 13-23.
[11] 刘安榕, 杨腾, 徐炜, 上官子健, 王金洲, 刘慧颖, 时玉, 褚海燕, 贺金生. 青藏高原高寒草地地下生物多样性: 进展、问题与展望[J]. 生物多样性, 2018, 26(9): 972-987.
[12] 刘雪华, 武鹏峰, 何祥博, 赵翔宇. 红外相机技术在物种监测中的应用及数据挖掘[J]. 生物多样性, 2018, 26(8): 850-861.
[13] 徐翔, 张化永, 谢婷, 孙青青, 田永兰. 西双版纳种子植物物种多样性的垂直格局及机制[J]. 生物多样性, 2018, 26(7): 678-689.
[14] 房以好, 任国鹏, 高颖, 张淑霞, 王浩瀚, 李延鹏, 黄志旁, 崔亮伟, 肖文. 红外相机安放于地面和林冠层对野生动物监测结果的影响[J]. 生物多样性, 2018, 26(7): 717-726.
[15] 张则瑾, 郭焱培, 贺金生, 唐志尧. 中国极小种群野生植物的保护现状评估[J]. 生物多样性, 2018, 26(6): 572-577.
Viewed
Full text


Abstract

Cited

  Shared   
  Discussed