生物多样性 ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (8): 896-906.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2016111

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青岛崂山湾人工鱼礁区底层游泳动物群落结构特征

刘鸿雁, 杨超杰, 张沛东, 李文涛, 杨晓龙, 张秀梅*()   

  1. 中国海洋大学海水养殖教育部重点实验室, 山东青岛 266003
  • 收稿日期:2016-04-25 接受日期:2016-07-19 出版日期:2016-08-20 发布日期:2016-09-02
  • 通讯作者: 张秀梅
  • 基金资助:
    国家海洋公益性行业科研专项(201405010;201305043)和国家自然科学基金(31572227)

Demersal nekton community structure of artificial reef zones in Laoshan Bay, Qingdao

Hongyan Liu, Chaojie Yang, Peidong Zhang, Wentao Li, Xiaolong Yang, Xiumei Zhang*()   

  1. Key Laboratory of Mariculture, Ministry of Education, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, Shandong 266003
  • Received:2016-04-25 Accepted:2016-07-19 Online:2016-08-20 Published:2016-09-02
  • Contact: Zhang Xiumei

摘要:

基于2015年5月至2016年1月在青岛崂山湾人工鱼礁区的调查数据, 采用Margalef种类丰富度指数(d)、Shannon-Wiener多样性指数(H')、Pielou均匀度指数(J)、丰度/生物量曲线、等级聚类分析、SIMPER相似性百分比分析和非度量多维尺度排序(NMDS)分析, 对底层游泳动物群落结构和多样性进行研究。调查期间共捕获游泳动物61种, 隶属34科, 其中鱼类36种, 甲壳类22种, 头足类3种。优势种为日本蟳(Charybdis japonica)、许氏平鲉(Sebastes schlegelii)、大泷六线鱼(Hexagrammus otakii)、斑头鱼(H. agrammus)和星康吉鳗(Conger myriaster), 其中日本蟳(26.91%)和许氏平鲉(26.74%)的生物量占绝对优势。礁区游泳动物的渔获量和渔获种类数均多于对照区, 月平均单位捕捞努力量渔获量(CPUE)最高值出现在5月, 达到735.74 ± 316.59 g·net-1·d-1。游泳动物群落组成的特征值上, 7、8月的多样性指数较高, 但鱼礁区和对照区无显著差异(P>0.05)。丰度/生物量曲线表明, 5、6月游泳动物群落处于严重受干扰状态, 11月和次年1月群落处于相对稳定状态。聚类分析表明, 除1月外, 各月份不同区域的样方相似性都较高, 5、6月三亩前礁区的相似性最高, 达到86.21%。

关键词: 人工鱼礁, 游泳动物群落结构, 多样性, 丰度/生物量曲线, 崂山湾

Abstract:

A field survey of the artificial reef and the control zones in Laoshan Bay, Shandong Province was performed from May 2015 to January 2016. We analyzed the community structure and biodiversity of demersal nekton by using Margalef’s species richness index, Shannon-Wiener diversity index, Pielou’s evenness index, abundance-biomass comparison curves, clustering analysis, SIMPER (similarity percentage) analysis, and Non-metric Multi Dimensional Scaling (NMDS). A total number of 61 species of nekton belonging to 34 families were captured during the surveys, including 36 species of fish, 22 species of crustaceans and 3 species of cephalopods. Charybdis japonica, Sebastes schlegelii, Hexagrammus otakii, H. agrammus and Conger myriaster were the dominant species, of which C. japonica and S. schlegelii were the dominant species by weight (26.91% and 26.74%, respectively). The highest monthly mean catch per unit effort (CPUE) in the investigated zones appeared in May 2015, and reached up to 735.74 g· net-1·d-1. It was noted that the diversity indices were higher in July and August, but there were no significant differences in community structure parameters between the artificial reef and the control zones (P>0.05). The abundance-biomass curves (ABC) of the nekton community indicated that the community was seriously disturbed in May and June 2015, but was stable by November 2015 and January 2016. Cluster analysis showed that similarities were high in different months and different zones, except January 2016, and the highest similarity appeared in the artificial reef of the Sanmuqian zone between May and June 2015, when it reached 86.21%.

Key words: artificial reef, nekton community structure, diversity, abundance-biomass comparison curves, Laoshan Bay