生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (1): 71-79.doi: 10.17520/biods.2016098

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三江源国家公园功能分区与目标管理

付梦娣1, 田俊量2, 朱彦鹏1, 田瑜1, 赵志平1, 李俊生1, *()   

  1. 1 中国环境科学研究院生物多样性研究中心, 北京 100012
    2 三江源国家公园管理局, 西宁 810007;
  • 收稿日期:2016-04-06 接受日期:2016-09-29 出版日期:2017-01-20
  • 通讯作者: 李俊生 E-mail:lijsh@craes.org.cn
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(31300458)和环境保护部业务经费“国家公园”项目

Identification of functional zones and methods of target management in Sanjiangyuan National Park

Mengdi Fu1, Junliang Tian1, Yanpeng Zhu1, Yu Tian1, Zhiping Zhao1, Junsheng Li1, *()   

  1. 1 Biodiversity Research Center, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
    2 Three-River-Source National Park Service, Xining 810007
  • Received:2016-04-06 Accepted:2016-09-29 Online:2017-01-20
  • Contact: Li Junsheng E-mail:lijsh@craes.org.cn

功能分区是国家公园总体规划和科学管理的重要环节。本研究以三江源国家公园黄河源园区为研究对象, 在综合分析区域生态环境基本特征的基础上, 选择生态系统服务、重要物种潜在生境、生态敏感性、生态压力4大类13项评价指标, 构建了国家公园功能分区评价指标体系, 运用层次分析法(AHP)和专家打分法, 结合管控目标需求, 将黄河源园区划分为核心保育区、生态保育修复区、传统利用区、居住和游憩服务区4个功能区, 保护程度依次降低, 利用程度及公众可进入性依次增强。该功能分区不仅可为三江源国家公园合理规划打下理论基础, 同时也对同类型的国家公园具有可借鉴性。

关键词: 国家公园, 三江源, 功能分区, 指标体系, 管控措施

Functional zones are the key link for the master planning and scientific management of national parks. We established an evaluation index system to comprehensively analyze regional ecological and environmental features in our study area, the source region of the Yellow River in the Sanjiangyuan National Park. The evaluation index system contains 13 evaluation indices, which include ecosystem services, potential habitat for key species, ecological sensitivity, and ecological pressure classes. By using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and experts marking methods and combining the requirements of management and control measures, the study area was divided into four primary functional zones, including a core reserve area, ecological restoration area, traditional utilization area, and residential and recreational service area. The protection gradation for each zone is reduced in turn, and the gradation of utilization and public accessibility is enhanced. This functional zones method laid a solid foundation for the effective planning of Sanjiangyuan National Park, while at the same time, our study provides new insight into the functional zones of national parks.

Key words: national park, Sanjiangyuan, functional zone, index system, control measures

表1

三江源国家公园功能分区评价指标体系"

指标类
Category
权重
Weight
指标项
Indicator
权重
Weight
生态系统服务 Ecosystem services 0.35 固碳 Carbon sequestration 0.18
水源涵养 Water conservation 0.51
土壤保持 Soil conservation 0.31
重要物种潜在生境 Potential habitat of
important species
0.30 有蹄类潜在分布 Potential distribution of ungulates 0.47
鸟类潜在分布 Potential distribution of birds 0.37
鱼类潜在分布 Potential distribution of fish 0.16
生态敏感性 Ecological sensitivity 0.20 植被覆盖度 Vegetation coverage 0.36
河流湖泊 Rivers and lakes 0.29
地形地貌 Topography 0.14
土壤侵蚀强度 Soil erosion intensity 0.12
气候变化指数 Climatic change index 0.09
生态压力 Ecological pressure 0.15 人口密度 Population density 0.50
牲畜密度 Livestock density 0.50

表2

三江源国家公园功能分区评价指标分级"

指标项
Indicator
一般
General
较重要
Relatively important
重要
Important
极重要
Very important
固碳
Carbon sequestration (g_C/m2)
<60 60-120 120-180 >180
水源涵养
Water conservation (mm)
<200 200-300 300-400 >400
土壤保持
Soil conservation (t/ha)
0-50 50-200 200-400 >400
有蹄类潜在分布
Potential distribution of ungulates
不适宜
Unsuitable
较不适宜
Less suitable
适宜
Suitable
最适宜
Most suitable
鸟类潜在分布
Potential distribution of birds
不适宜
Unsuitable
较不适宜
Less suitable
适宜
Suitable
最适宜
Most suitable
鱼类潜在分布
Potential distribution of fish
不适宜
Unsuitable
较不适宜
Less suitable
适宜
Suitable
最适宜
Most suitable
植被覆盖度
Vegetation coverage (%)
<30 30-45 45-60 >60
河流湖泊
Rivers and lakes
其他区域
Other regions
河流100 m缓冲区
River 100 m buffer
河流50 m缓冲区
River 50 m buffer
河流、湖泊、湿地
Rivers, lakes and wetlands
地形地貌
Topography
冲湖积平原
Alluvial lacustrine plain
高原极高山
Plateau and extremely high mountains
土壤侵蚀强度
Soil erosion intensity
微度侵蚀
Mired erosion
轻度侵蚀
Mild erosion
中度侵蚀
Medium erosion
强烈侵蚀
Strong erosion
气候变化指数
Climatic change index
<2.5 2.5-3.0 3.0-3.5 >3.5
人口密度
Population density (人/km2)
0-0.25 0.25-0.5 0.5-0.75 0.75-1.0
牲畜密度
Livestock density (头/km2)
0-15 15-30 30-45 45-60
分级赋值 Classification assignment 1 2 3 4

图1

三江源国家公园各指标项的空间分布。(a)生态系统服务; (b)重要物种潜在生境; (c)生态敏感性; (d)生态压力。"

图2

三江源国家公园黄河源园区综合评价"

图3

三江源国家公园黄河源园区功能分区(I、II、III、IV为分区编号, 同Box 1)"

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