生物多样性 ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (5): 578-587.doi: 10.17520/biods.2015354

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通过红色名录评估探讨中国爬行动物受威胁现状及原因

蔡波1, 2(), 李家堂1, 陈跃英1, 王跃招1, , A;*   

  1. 1 中国科学院成都生物研究所, 成都 610041
    2 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2015-12-14 接受日期:2016-03-22 出版日期:2016-05-20
  • 通讯作者: 王跃招 E-mail:arcib@cib.ac.cn
  • 基金项目:
    环境保护部生物多样性保护专项——中国脊椎动物红色名录项目(Y31Z01)和科技基础工作专项藏东南动物资源综合考察与重要类群资源评估(2014FY210200)

Exploring the status and causes of China’s threatened reptiles through the red list assessment

Bo Cai1, 2(), Jiatang Li1, Yueying Chen1, Yuezhao Wang1, *   

  1. 1 Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041
    2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2015-12-14 Accepted:2016-03-22 Online:2016-05-20
  • Contact: Wang Yuezhao E-mail:arcib@cib.ac.cn

为了评估中国爬行动物红色名录, 我们按照爬行动物生物学特性, 适当修改了IUCN濒危物种红色名录标准Version 3.1。在此基础上, 评估了中国爬行动物生存现状, 参与编制了《中国生物多样性红色名录——脊椎动物卷》。此次评估的中国爬行动物有3目32科133属461种, 结果为: 区域灭绝(RE) 2种、极危(CR) 34种、濒危(EN) 37种、易危(VU) 66种、近危(NT) 78种、无危(LC) 175种以及数据缺乏(DD) 69种。中国受威胁(包括极危、濒危、易危)的爬行动物共计137种, 约占总数的29.72%, 包括龟鳖目31种、有鳞目蛇亚目67种、蜥蜴亚目38种和鳄形目1种, 高于2014年《IUCN濒危物种红色名录》评估的世界爬行动物受威胁比例(13.61%)。在所有受威胁物种中, 受威胁比例最高的类群是鳄形目(100%)和龟鳖目(91.18%), 其次是有鳞目蛇亚目(28.39%), 第三是有鳞目蜥蜴亚目(20.21%)。中国爬行动物特有种受威胁物种有39种, 占特有种总数(143种)的27.27%, 占受威胁物种总数(137)的28.47%。长江以南的华南和西南地区受威胁的物种最多。爬行动物受人类干扰严重, 主要表现为: 栖息地质量退化及生境破碎化、过度利用及污染和气候变化等。尽管自1989年《中华人民共和国野生动物保护法》实施以来, 一些中国濒危爬行动物的生存状况得到改善。但鉴于中国爬行动物区系的独特性和多样性、地形地貌的复杂性及社会经济发展的不均衡性, 为了维持区域生态安全和资源可持续利用, 拯救中国濒危爬行动物, 尤其是中国特有爬行动物中的极危物种, 是中国动物保护工作最迫切的任务之一。

关键词: 爬行纲, 濒危, 生物多样性, 保护, 威胁因素, 评估

This study investigated the living status of reptile species in China. Based on surveys and revised IUCN criterion (Version 3.1), we evaluated the endangerment status and completed China’s Biodiversity Red List, Volume of Vertebrates. The reptiles assessed included 3 orders, 32 families, 133 genera and 461 species, in which Crocodylia contains 3 families, 3 genera and 3 species, Testudines contains 6 families, 18 genera and 34 species, Lacertilia in Squamata contains 10 families, 41 genera and 188 species, and Serpentes in Squamata contains 13 families, 71 genera and 236 species. The study identified 2 species as Regionally Extinction (RE), 34 species as Critically Endangered (CR), 37 species as Endangered (EN), 66 species as Vulnerable (VU), 78 species as Near Threatened (NT), 175 species were identified as of Least Concern (LC) and 69 species as Data Deficient (DD). The threatened species (including CR, EN and VU) in reptile taxa are listed as follows: Testudines contained 31 species, Lacertilia in Squamata contained 38 species, Serpentes in Squamata contained 67 species, and Crocodylia contained 1 species. In China, threatened reptiles totaled 137 species, which accounted for 29.72% of reptiles in China (461 species), which is higher than that of the global assessment of the 2014 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (13.61%). Of the 137 threatened species, Crocodylia and Testudines were the two most endangered groups (covering 100% and 91.18%, respectively), followed by Serpentes in Squamata with 28.39%, and Lacertilia in Squamata (20.21%) was the least endangered. There were 39 species of endemic reptiles in China identified as endangered, which were 27.27% and 28.47% of the total number of reptiles endemic to China (143) and endangered species (137), respectively. The most endangered species were distributed in the southwestern and southern regions of China. The main threats to species survival: habitat destruction and fragmentation, overuse and the heavy pollution, and climate change. Given the uniqueness and diversity of Chinese reptile fauna, the complexity of topography and geomorphology, and the imbalance of the development of social economy, we suggest that the whole society should act to protect endangered reptiles, especially endemic and critically endangered species, which is one of the most important tasks of biodiversity conservation in China.

Key words: Reptilia, endangered, biodiversity, conservation, threats, assessment

表1

爬行动物种群数量的评估标准"


Low

Middle

High
繁殖能力
Reproductive capacity
1年1窝, 窝卵数不超过15枚/窝
One litter a year, clutch size less than 15 eggs per litter
1年1窝, 窝卵数超过15枚/窝; 或1年2窝, 窝卵数不超过8枚/窝
One litter a year, clutch size more than 15 eggs per litter; or two litters a year, clutch size less than 8 eggs per litter
1年1窝, 窝卵数超过25枚/窝; 或1年2窝, 窝卵数超过8枚/窝; 1年3窝以上
One litter a year, clutch size more than 25 eggs per litter; or two litters a year, clutch size more than 8 eggs per litter
遇见率
Encounter rate
野外罕见
Rare in the wild
野外偶见
Occasional in the wild
野外常见
Common in the wild

表2

中国脊椎动物红色名录中爬行类评估结果"

红色名录等级
Red list category
龟鳖目
Testudines
有鳞目 Squamata 鳄形目
Crocodylia
总种数
Total species
各等级物种数占爬行动物总物种数的比例 Proportion of the number of species to the total numbers in each categories
蛇亚目
Serpentes
蜥蜴亚目
Lacertilia
灭绝 Extinct (EX) 0 0 0 0 0 0
野外灭绝 Extinct in the Wild (EW) 0 0 0 0 0 0
区域灭绝 Regional Extinct (RE) 0 0 0 2 2 0.43%
极危 Critically Endangered (CR) 21 6 6 1 34 7.37%
濒危 Endangered (EN) 10 18 9 0 37 8.03%
易危 Vulnerable (VU) 0 43 23 0 66 14.32%
近危 Near Threatened (NT) 0 52 26 0 78 16.92%
无危 Least Concern (LC) 0 83 92 0 175 37.96%
数据缺乏 Data Deficient (DD) 3 34 32 0 69 14.97%
总计 Total 34 236 188 3 461 100%

图1

2004年与2016年爬行动物受威胁种数比较"

图2

中国受威胁与未受威胁爬行动物的海拔分布"

表3

按省区统计的爬行动物受威胁物种"

省份
Province
受威胁种数
Number of
threatened species
全省总数
Number of total species
受威胁物种数占全省总种数比例
Proportion of the number of threatened species to the total numbers at total provincial level (%)
受威胁物种数占全国受威胁物种数比例
Proportion of the number of threatened species to the total numbers of national threatened species (%)
广西 Guangxi 60 163 36.8 43.8
云南 Yunnan 49 163 30.1 35.8
广东 Guangdong 48 128 37.5 35.0
海南 Hainan 47 113 41.6 34.3
福建 Fujian 41 123 33.3 29.9
台湾 Taiwan 36 104 34.6 26.3
浙江 Zhejiang 33 85 38.8 24.1
香港 Hong Kong 32 95 33.7 23.4
湖南 Hunan 28 82 34.2 20.4
江西 Jiangxi 27 77 35.1 19.7
贵州 Guizhou 27 101 26.7 19.7
安徽 Anhui 25 68 36.8 18.3
江苏 Jiangsu 24 56 42.9 17.5
湖北 Hubei 22 56 39.3 16.1
四川 Sichuan 21 102 20.6 15.3
重庆 Chongqing 17 40 42.5 12.4
西藏 Xizang (Tibet) 17 68 25.0 12.4
上海 Shanghai 15 32 46.9 11.0
山东 Shandong 13 28 46.4 9.5
陕西 Shaanxi 13 54 24.1 9.5
甘肃 Gansu 13 62 21.0 9.5
新疆 Xinjiang 12 51 23.5 8.8
辽宁 Liaoning 10 29 34.5 7.3
河南 Henan 10 34 29.4 7.3
澳门 Macao 9 15 60.0 6.6
天津 Tianjin 9 16 56.3 6.6
河北 Hebei 9 21 42.9 6.6
山西 Shanxi 8 22 36.4 5.8
北京 Beijing 6 16 37.5 4.4
吉林 Jilin 4 16 25.0 2.9
黑龙江 Heilongjiang 4 18 22.2 2.9
内蒙古 Inner Mongolia 4 26 15.4 2.9
青海 Qinghai 1 11 9.1 0.7
宁夏 Ningxia 1 17 5.9 0.7
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