生物多样性 ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (5): 588-597.doi: 10.17520/biods.2015348

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中国两栖动物受威胁现状评估

江建平1, , A;*(), 谢锋1, 臧春鑫1, 蔡蕾3, 李成1, 王斌1, 李家堂1, 王杰1, 胡军华1, 王燕1, 刘炯宇1   

  1. 1 中国科学院成都生物研究所, 成都 610041
    2 中国环境科学研究院, 北京 100012
    3 中华人民共和国环境保护部自然生态保护司, 北京 100035
  • 收稿日期:2015-12-10 接受日期:2016-05-07 出版日期:2016-05-20
  • 通讯作者: 江建平 E-mail:jiangjp@cib.ac.cn
  • 基金项目:
    环境保护部生物多样性保护专项——中国脊椎动物红色名录项目和国家自然科学基金(NSFC 31471964)

Assessing the threat status of amphibians in China

Jianping Jiang1, *(), Feng Xie1, Chunxin Zang2, Lei Cai3, Cheng Li1, Bin Wang1, Jiatang Li1, Jie Wang1, Junhua Hu1, Yan Wang1, Jiongyu Liu1   

  1. 1 Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041
    2 Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
    3 Department of Nature and Ecological Conservation, Ministry of Environmental Protection, P. R. China, Beijing 100035
  • Received:2015-12-10 Accepted:2016-05-07 Online:2016-05-20
  • Contact: Jiang Jianping E-mail:jiangjp@cib.ac.cn

为了了解我国两栖动物受威胁现状和致危因素, 进而制定相关的保护措施和开展国际合作, 本文依据中国两栖动物野生种群与生境现状, 利用《IUCN物种红色名录濒危等级和标准》(3.1版)和《IUCN物种红色名录标准在国家或地区的应用指南》(4.0版), 对中国已知的408种两栖动物的濒危状况进行了评估, 并编制了《中国两栖动物红色名录》。评估结果表明: 中国两栖动物有1种灭绝, 1种区域灭绝, 受威胁的两栖动物共计176种, 占评估物种总数的43.1%, 明显高于《IUCN濒危物种红色名录》(2015)的物种受威胁率(30.8%)。中国两栖动物特有种272种, 其中48.9%属于受威胁物种。中国两栖动物受威胁比例最高的目是有尾目(63.4%), 明显高于无尾目(39.0%); 受威胁比例最高的科是隐鳃鲵科(Cryptobranchidae) (仅有1种, 100%受威胁), 小鲵科(Hynobiidae) (86.7%)和叉舌蛙科(Dicroglossidae) (78.1%)。有11个省区的受威胁物种数占本省区两栖动物物种总数的30%及以上, 前3位分别是四川(40.8%)、广西(39.2%)和云南(37%)。中国大多数两栖动物物种分布在西南山地和华南地区, 以海拔2,000 m以下区域为主。栖息地退化或丧失、捕捉、环境污染列受威胁两栖动物致危因子的前3位。鉴于中国两栖动物区系的复杂性和独特性, 进一步加强两栖动物资源调查、种群和生境监测及相关科学研究, 仍是今后一段时期开展两栖动物多样性保护和濒危物种拯救行动的关键性基础工作。

关键词: 红色名录, 灭绝, 区域灭绝, 极度濒危, 濒危, 易危, 濒危等级, 致危因子, 两栖纲, 中国

In order to clarify the threat status of Chinese amphibians and the conditions threatening these species, we compiled a red list of amphibians in China based on the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria (Version 3.1), and Guidelines for Application of IUCN Red List Criteria at Regional and National Levels (Version 4.0). This red list, which includes details on population and habitat status, rates of population decline, and projected population trends, will facilitate development of protective management agreements for Chinese administrative departments, the Chinese public, and international organizations. We evaluated 408 amphibian species and discovered that 43.1% of the evaluated species, i.e., 176 species, were threatened, which exceeds the net percentage of threatened amphibian species throughout the entire world. One species was classified as “Extinct” and another species was classified as “Regionally Extinct”. There are 272 amphibian species endemic to China, and 48.9% of them were threatened. The tailed amphibian order (Urodela) possessed the highest ratios of threatened species, followed by the tailless amphibian order (Anura). The families with the highest percentages of threatened species were Cryptobranchidae (100% threatened), Hynobiidae (86.7% threatened), and Dicroglossidae (78.1% threatened). In eleven provinces, more than 30% of the local amphibian species were classified as threatened species, with the provinces Sichuan (40.8%), Guangxi (39.2%), and Yunnan (37.0%) having the highest percentage of threatened amphibians. Most of China’s amphibians are distributed in southwestern and southern China and below 2,000 m altitude. Habitat degeneration and loss, human capture, and pollution were the three leading threats to amphibians in China. In order to restore endangered amphibian populations and conserve amphibian diversity in China, more population surveys and monitoring projects as well as scientific research on Chinese amphibians are necessary.

Key words: Red list, Extinct, Regionally Extinct, Critically Endangered, Endangered, Vulnerable, threat factor, amphibia, China

表1

中国两栖动物红色名录本次评估与2004年的国际(IUCN, 2004)、国内(汪松和解焱, 2004)评估比较。CR: 极度濒危; EN: 濒危; VU: 易危; NT: 近危; LC: 无危。"

物种
Species
本次评估
This work
2004 IUCN
IUCN 2004
2004中国
China 2004
版纳鱼螈 Ichthyophis bannanicus Yang, 1984 NT LC NT
东北小鲵 Hynobius (Hynobius) leechii Boulenger, 1887 VU LC LC
阿里山小鲵 Hynobius (Makihynobius) arisanensis Maki, 1922 EN VU VU
秦巴拟小鲵 Pseudohynobius tsinpaensis (Liu and Hu, 1966) EN VU VU
辽宁爪鲵 Onychodactylus zhaoermii Che, Poyarkov and Yan, 2012 CR LC EN
吉林爪鲵 Onychodactylus zhangyapingi Che, Poyarkov, Li and Yan, 2012 VU LC EN
新疆北鲵 Ranodon sibiricus Kessler, 1866 CR EN CR
龙洞山溪鲵 Batrachuperus londongensis Liu and Tian, 1978 VU EN EN
棕黑疣螈 Tylototriton (Tylototriton) verrucosus Anderson, 1871 NT LC NT
大凉螈 Liangshantriton taliangensis (Liu, 1950) VU NT VU
尾斑瘰螈 Paramesotriton caudopunctatus (Liu and Hu, 1973) VU NT NT
中国瘰螈 Paramesotriton chinensis (Gray, 1859) NT LC NT
无斑瘰螈 Paramesotriton labiatus (Unterstein, 1930) VU LC LC
蓝尾蝾螈 Cynops cyanurus Fei and Ye, 1993 NT LC NT
东方蝾螈 Cynops orientalis (David, 1875) NT LC LC
潮汕蝾螈 Cynops orphicus Risch, 1983 VU EN EN
峨眉齿蟾 Oreolalax omeimontis (Liu and Hu, 1960) VU EN VU
秉志齿蟾 Oreolalax pingii (Liu, 1943) VU EN VU
宝兴齿蟾 Oreolalax popei (Liu, 1947) VU LC LC
林芝齿突蟾 Scutiger (Scutiger) nyingchiensis Fei, 1977 NT LC NT
锡金齿突蟾 Scutiger (Scutiger) sikimmensis (Blyth, 1854) NT LC VU
沙巴拟髭蟾 Leptobrachium chapaense (Bourret, 1937) NT LC NT
雷山髭蟾 Vibrissaphora leishanensis Liu and Hu, 1973 VU EN VU
崇安髭蟾 Vibrissaphora liui Pope, 1947 NT LC NT
蟼掌突蟾 Paramegophrys pelodytoides (Boulenger, 1893) VU LC VU
宽头短腿蟾 Brachytarsophrys carinensis (Boulenger, 1889) NT LC LC
费氏短腿蟾 Brachytarsophrys feae (Boulenger, 1887) NT LC LC
短肢角蟾 Megophrys brachykolos Inger and Romer, 1961 VU EN EN
景东角蟾 Megophrys jingdongensis Fei and Ye, 1983 NT LC NT
大角蟾 Megophrys major (Boulenger, 1908) NT LC LC
峨眉角蟾 Megophrys omeimontis Liu, 1950 VU NT NT
粗皮角蟾 Megophrys palpebralespinosa Bourret, 1937 VU LC NT
凹顶角蟾 Megophrys parva (Boulenger, 1893) VU LC NT
巫山角蟾 Megophrys wushanensis Ye and Fei, 1995 VU LC VU
突肛拟角蟾 Ophryopryne pachyproctus Kou, 1985 VU LC VU
小口拟角蟾 Ophryophryne microstoma Boulenger, 1903 VU LC EN
史氏蟾蜍 Bufo stejnegeri Schmidt, 1931 VU LC NT
鳞皮小蟾 Parapelophryne scalpta (Liu and Hu, 1973) VU EN VU
黑龙江林蛙 Rana amurensis Boulenger, 1886 NT LC LC
中亚林蛙 Rana asiatica Bedriaga, 1898 NT LC LC
峰斑林蛙 Rana chevronta Hu and Ye, 1978 EN CR EN
长肢林蛙 Rana longicrus Stejneger, 1898 LC VU VU
福建侧褶蛙 Pelophylax fukienensis (Pope, 1929) NT LC NT
胫腺蛙 Liuhurana shuchinae (Liu, 1950) NT LC NT
东北粗皮蛙 Rugosa emeljanovi (Nikolsky, 1913) VU LC LC
威宁趾沟蛙 Pseudorana weiningensis (Liu, Hu and Yang, 1962) NT VU NT
长趾纤蛙 Hylarana macrodactyla Günther, 1858 NT LC NT
台北纤蛙 Hylarana taipehensis (van Denburgh, 1909) NT LC NT
竖琴蛙 Nidirana psaltes (Kuramoto, 1985) VU EN CR
细刺水蛙 Sylvirana spinulosa (Smith, 1923) NT VU NT
小竹叶蛙 Bamburana exiliversabilis (Fei, Ye and Li, 2001) NT LC NT
竹叶蛙 Bamburana versabilis (Liu and Hu, 1962) NT LC NT
云南臭蛙 Odorrana andersonii (Bonlenger, 1882) VU LC VU
筠连臭蛙 Odorrana junlianensis Huang, Fei and Ye, 2001 NT VU NT
光雾臭蛙 Odorrana kuangwuensis (Liu and Hu, 1966) VU EN VU
滇南臭蛙 Odorrana tiannanensis (Yang and Li, 1980) VU NT VU
务川臭蛙 Odorrana wuchuanensis (Xu, 1983) VU CR CR
台湾拟湍蛙 Pseudoamolops sauteri (Boulenger, 1909) VU EN NT
沙巴湍蛙 Amolops chapaensis (Bourret, 1937) VU NT VU
棘皮湍蛙 Amolops granulosus (Liu and Hu, 1961) NT LC LC
香港湍蛙 Amolops hongkongensis (Pope and Romer, 1951) EN NT EN
理县湍蛙 Amolops lifanensis (Liu, 1945) LC NT LC
山湍蛙 Amolops monticola (Anderson, 1871) NT LC NT
小湍蛙 Amolops torrentis (Smith, 1923) LC VU LC
海陆蛙 Fejervarya cancrivora (Gravenhorst, 1829) EN LC EN
虎纹蛙 Hoplobatrachus chinensis (Osbeck, 1765) EN LC VU
版纳大头蛙 Limnonectes bannaensis Fei, Ye, Xie and Jiang, 2007 VU LC NT
脆皮大头蛙 Limnonectes fragilis (Liu and Hu, 1973) EN VU NT
福建大头蛙 Limnonectes fujianensis Fei and Ye, 1994 NT LC LC
布兰福棘蛙 Paa blanfordii (Boulenger, 1882) VU LC VU
波留宁棘蛙 Paa polunini (Smith, 1951) VU LC VU
棘臂蛙 Paa liebigii (Günther, 1860) VU LC VU
棘腹蛙 Quasipaa boulengeri (Günther, 1889) VU EN VU
合江棘蛙 Quasipaa robertingeri (Wu and Zhao, 1995) VU EN VU
尖舌浮蛙 Occidozyga lima (Gravenhorst, 1829) VU LC LC
圆蟾舌蛙 Phrynoglossus martensii Peters, 1867 NT LC NT
海南溪树蛙 Buergeria oxycephala (Boulenger, 1899) NT VU NT
黑眼睑纤树蛙 Gracixalus gracilipes (Bourret, 1937) NT LC VU
眼斑刘树蛙 Liuixalus ocellatus (Liu and Hu, 1973) NT EN VU
陇川刘树蛙 Liuixalus longchuanensis (Yang and Li, 1978) NT LC NT
罗默刘树蛙 Liuixalus romeri (Smith, 1953) VU EN VU
红吸盘棱皮树蛙 Theloderma rhododiscus (Liu and Hu, 1962) VU NT VU
诸罗树蛙 Rhacophorus arvalis Lue, Lai and Chen, 1995 VU EN EN
宝兴树蛙 Rhacophorus dugritei (David, 1871) VU LC LC
棕褶树蛙 Rhacophorus feae Boulenger, 1893 VU LC NT
白颌大树蛙 Rhacophorus maximus Günther, 1858 NT LC NT
大姬蛙 Microhyla fowleri Taylor, 1934 NT LC NT
德力小姬蛙 Micryletta inornata (Boulenger, 1890) VU LC VU
史氏小姬蛙 Micryletta steinegeri (Boulenger, 1909) LC EN VU
花细狭口蛙 Kalophrynus interlineatus (Blyth, 1855) NT LC NT

表2

中国两栖动物各科受威胁的物种数及其所占百分比"


Family
物种数
Species
受威胁物种数
Threatened species (%)
隐腮鲵科 Cryptobranchidae 1 1 (100.0)
小鲵科 Hynobiidae 30 26 (86.7)
叉舌蛙科 Dicroglossidae 32 25 (78.1)
铃蟾科 Bombinatoridae 5 3 (60.0)
角蟾科 Megophryidae 88 47 (53.4)
蝾螈科 Salamandridae 40 18 (45.0)
浮蛙科 Occidozygidae 8 3 (37.5)
蟾蜍科 Bufonidae 20 7 (35.0)
树蛙科 Rhacrophoridae 59 17 (28.8)
蛙科 Ranidae 100 26 (26.0)
雨蛙科 Hylidae 8 2 (25.0)
姬蛙科 Microhylidae 16 1 (6.3)
鱼螈科 Ichthyophiidae 1 0 (0.0)

表3

各省市区两栖动物受威胁物种数及其所占百分比"

省市区
Provincial region
物种数
Species
受威胁物种数
Threatened species (%)
四川 Sichuan 103 42 (40.8)
广西 Guangxi 97 38 (39.2)
云南 Yunnan 138 51 (37.0)
湖北 Hubei 50 17 (34.0)
重庆 Chongqing 43 14 (32.6)
甘肃 Gansu 34 11 (32.4)
陕西 Shaanxi 25 8 (32.0)
台湾 Taiwan 38 12 (31.6)
海南 Hainan 42 13 (31.0)
贵州 Guizhou 70 21 (30.0)
湖南 Hunan 70 21 (30.0)
河南 Henan 27 8 (29.6)
辽宁 Liaoning 15 4 (26.7)
西藏 Xizang 53 14 (26.4)
广东 Guangdong 65 15 (23.1)
吉林 Jilin 13 3 (23.1)
青海 Qinghai 9 2 (22.2)
福建 Fujian 50 11 (22.0)
山西 Shanxi 14 3 (21.4)
香港 Hong Kong 24 5 (20.8)
黑龙江 Heilongjiang 11 2 (18.2)
安徽 Anhui 39 7 (17.9)
浙江 Zhejiang 46 8 (17.4)
宁夏 Ningxia 6 1 (16.7)
新疆 Xinjiang 6 1 (16.7)
江西 Jiangxi 50 8 (16.0)
江苏 Jiangsu 23 3 (13.0)
澳门 Macao 9 1 (11.1)
河北 Hebei 10 1 (10.0)
山东 Shandong 11 1 (9.1)
上海 Shanghai 13 0 (0.0)
北京 Beijing 9 0 (0.0)
内蒙古 Nei Mongol 9 0 (0.0)
天津 Tianjin 7 0 (0.0)

图1

中国两栖动物物种在不同海拔条件下的受威胁情况"

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