生物多样性 ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (4): 367-377.doi: 10.17520/biods.2015240

所属专题: 中国西南干旱河谷的植物多样性

• 研究报告 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国西南干旱河谷植被的区系地理成分与空间分异

刘晔1, 朱鑫鑫2, 沈泽昊3, *(), 孙航4, *()   

  1. 1 北京大学深圳研究生院, 城市规划与设计学院, 深圳 518055。
    2 信阳师范学院生命科学学院, 河南信阳 464000。
    3 北京大学城市与环境学院生态学系, 地表过程分析与模拟教育部重点实验室, 北京 100871
    4 中国科学院昆明植物研究所生物多样性与生物地理学重点实验室, 昆明 650204
  • 收稿日期:2015-09-11 接受日期:2016-02-02 出版日期:2016-04-20
  • 通讯作者: 沈泽昊,孙航 E-mail:shzh@urban.pku.edu.cn;hsun@mail.kib.ac.cn
  • 基金项目:
    国家自然科学基金(41371190)和交通运输部西部计划项目(2008 318 799 17)

Flora compositions and spatial differentiations of vegetation in dry valleys of Southwest China

Ye Liu1, Xinxin Zhu2, Zehao Shen3, *(), Hang Sun4, *()   

  1. 1 School of Urban Planning and Design, Shenzhen Graduate School, Peking University, Shenzhen 518055.
    2 College of Life Science, Xinyang Normal University, Xinyang, Henan 464000.
    3 Department of Ecology, College of Urban and Environmental Sciences, the Key Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes of the Ministry of Education, Peking University, Beijing 100871.
    4 Key Laboratory of Plant Diversity and Biogeography of East Asia, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650204
  • Received:2015-09-11 Accepted:2016-02-02 Online:2016-04-20
  • Contact: Shen Zehao,Sun Hang E-mail:shzh@urban.pku.edu.cn;hsun@mail.kib.ac.cn

根据对云南、四川、甘肃三省九条主要河流干旱河谷的植物群落调查数据, 对我国西南干旱河谷维管束植物区系的科、属分布区类型进行划分, 并分析其地理分布格局。结果表明: (1)西南干旱河谷区的植物区系地理成分复杂, 联系广泛, 共包含11个科级和15个属级分布区类型; 总体上, 科、属两级热带/温带成分比例分别为3.06和1.77, 显示了强烈的热带区系亲缘及温带区系的后期影响; 与地中海-西亚至中亚植物区系存在一定联系; 其东亚成分和中国特有成分比例低于亚热带区系平均水平, 且中国-喜马拉雅成分比例高于中国-日本成分。(2)从西南向东北方向, 植物区系的热带性质逐渐减弱, 温带性质逐渐增强; 科、属水平区系成分与古地中海-中亚区系的相似性逐渐增强; 东亚和中国特有成分比例增加; 南盘江与元江的干旱河谷植物区系之间存在中国-日本和中国-喜马拉雅成分的分界线。(3)根据干旱河谷植物属区系成分的比例构成将怒江、澜沧江和元江与其他流域分开, 显示了长江溯源侵蚀和水系合并对西南诸河流植物区系发育的影响。

关键词: 中国西南干旱河谷, 维管束植物, 区系成分, 相似性, 空间分异

Based on plant community data collected from dry valleys of nine major rivers in Gansu, Sichuan and Yunnan provinces of Southwest China, we divided the families and genera of the vascular plants into geographic elements of Chinese flora, and analyzed the spatial patterns. We found the flora of dry valleys of Southwest China revealed a complex composition of geographic elements with wide floristic connections, including 11 family area-types and 15 genera area-types. The ratio of tropical versus temperate floristic elements was 3.06 at the family level, and 1.77 at the genus level, showing a distinctive affinity for tropical floras, and later imprints of temperate floras. A clear floristic linkage existed between the dry valley floras and the Mediterranean, Western- and Central-Asian floras. The percentages of East Asian elements and endemic Chinese elements were below the average value in the flora found for the subtropical region in China. The Sino-Himalayan element had a value higher than that for the Sino-Japan element in the dry valley floras. The floristic affinity to the tropics weakened while affinity to temperate flora intensified moving in the region from the southwest to northeast. Linkages with the Mediterranean-Central Asian floras, and also the percentage of East Asian elements and endemic Chinese elements increased in the same direction. A boundary between the Sino-Japan type and Sino-Himalayan type was detected between the dry valley floras of Nanpanjiang River and Yuanjiang River. With respect to the genus level floristic composition of geographic elements, Nujiang River, Lancangjiang River and Yuanjiang River were separated from the other rivers, which are all upper branches of the Yangtze River. This departure indicated the impacts of the evolution of the Yangtze River, which were characterized by headward erosion, river confluences, on the characteristics of modern flora in dry valleys.

Key words: dry valleys of Southwest China, vascular plants, floristic elements, similarity, spatial differentiation

图1

西南九个流域干旱河谷的植物调查采样点分布(中国全图审图号GS (2008)1157号)"

表1

中国西南各流域干旱河谷植被的样方分布"

流域
Valley
样方数
Number of plots
海拔
Elevation (m)
东经
East longitude (°)
北纬
North latitude (°)
白龙江 Bailongjiang River 136 762-1,016 104.6-105.21 32.76-33.35
大渡河 Daduhe River 47 1,200-1,432 102.17-102.38 29.64-30.14
金沙江 Jinshajiang River 563 358-3,298 99.17-103.88 25.56-28.69
澜沧江 Lancangjiang River 129 1,010-4,297 98.8-100.22 24.82-28.48
岷江 Minjiang River 24 1,710-2,270 103.42-103.54 31.33-31.4
南盘江 Nanpanjiang River 38 952-1,787 102.94-104.04 23.78-24.74
怒江 Nujiang River 385 680-1,999 98.42-98.91 24.65-28.07
雅砻江 Yalongjiang River 62 1,236-2,736 100.74-101.93 27.73-30.27
元江 Yuanjiang River 228 182-1,530 100.43-103.38 23.01-25.17

表2

中国西南各流域干旱河谷植被的主要维管束植物科组成"

流域
Valley
科数
Number
of
families
属数
Number
of
genera
种数
Number
of
species
种类最多的科 Top families of vascular plants 单属单种科数
Families with single genus and single species
科 Family 百分比
Percentage %

Genus

Species
白龙江
Bailongjiang River
63 125 153 禾本科、菊科、蔷薇科、蝶形花科
Gramineae, Compositae, Rosaceae, Fabaceae
32.80 37.25 38
大渡河
Daduhe River
80 174 239 菊科、禾本科、蝶形花科、百合科
Compositae, Gramineae, Fabaceae, Liliaceae
31.61 32.22 33
金沙江下段
Jinshajiang River Downstream
145 597 1,174 菊科、禾本科、蝶形花科、蔷薇科
Compositae, Gramineae, Fabaceae, Rosaceae
29.65 29.56 40
金沙江上段
Jinshajiang River Upstream
118 401 714 菊科、禾本科、蝶形花科、蔷薇科
Compositae, Gramineae, Fabaceae, Rosaceae
31.42 33.19 40
澜沧江
Lancangjiang River
138 465 882 菊科、禾本科、蝶形花科、蔷薇科
Compositae, Gramineae, Fabaceae, Rosaceae
28.17 31.41 37
岷江
Minjiang River
39 82 99 菊科、蔷薇科、蝶形花科、禾本科
Compositae, Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Gramineae
37.80 41.41 19
南盘江
Nanpanjiang River
66 163 206 禾本科、菊科、蝶形花科、大戟科
Gramineae, Compositae, Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae
37.42 37.86 36
怒江
Nujiang River
161 621 1,176 禾本科、菊科、蝶形花科、唇形科
Gramineae, Compositae, Fabaceae, Labiatae
27.05 26.02 44
雅砻江
Yalongjiang River
73 164 240 菊科、蝶形花科、唇形科、蔷薇科
Compositae, Fabaceae, Labiatae, Rosaceae
29.27 31.67 35
元江
Yuanjiang River
89 338 496 禾本科、蝶形花科、菊科、大戟科
Gramineae, Fabaceae, Compositae, Euphorbiaceae
36.09 40.32 30

表3

中国西南九大流域干旱河谷维管束植物科的区系地理成分构成"

表4

中国西南九大流域干旱河谷维管束植物属的区系地理成分构成"

表5

西南各流域干旱河谷维管束植物科、属水平热带成分与温带成分的比值"

分类等级
Taxonomic level
白龙江
Bailongjiang River
大渡河
Daduhe River
金沙江下段
Jinshajiang River
Downstream
金沙江上段
Jinshajiang River
Upstream
澜沧江
Lancangjiang River
岷江
Min-
jiang River
南盘江
Nanpanjiang River
怒江
Nujiang River
雅砻江
Yalong-
jiang River
元江
Yuanjiang River
科 Family 2.56 2.55 3.23 2.45 2.70 1.25 6.17 3.46 2.36 4.89
属 Genus 1.05 1.25 1.90 0.94 1.20 0.39 5.66 2.18 0.74 4.59

图2

中国西南不同流域干旱河谷的植物区系成分相似性。a: 科区系, b: 属区系。"

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