生物多样性 ›› 2015, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (5): 583-590.doi: 10.17520/biods.2015115

所属专题: 中国自然观察专题

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中国最受关注濒危物种保护现状快速评价的新方法探讨

顾垒1, 2, *(), 闻丞1, 2, 罗玫1, 王昊1, 2, 吕植1, 2   

  1. 1 北京大学生命科学学院自然保护与社会发展研究中心, 北京 100871
    2 山水自然保护中心, 北京 100871
  • 收稿日期:2015-05-06 接受日期:2015-09-20 出版日期:2015-09-20
  • 通讯作者: 顾垒 E-mail:nightingaleg@gmail.com
  • 基金项目:
    中国博士后科学基金(2014M550554)

A rapid approach for assessing the conservation effectiveness of the most concerned endangered species in China

Lei Gu1, 2, *(), Cheng Wen1, 2, Mei Luo1, Hao Wang1, 2, Zhi Lü1, 2   

  1. 1 Center for Nature and Society, School of Life Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100871
    2 Shanshui Conservation Center, Beijing 100871
  • Received:2015-05-06 Accepted:2015-09-20 Online:2015-09-20
  • Contact: Gu Lei E-mail:nightingaleg@gmail.com

本文尝试制订了一套评分标准, 对中国174个国家I级保护动植物物种和IUCN物种红色名录中极危(CR)、濒危(EN)级别的鸟类的保护成效进行了快速评价。选取种群数量和趋势、信息完善程度、模拟分布区中适宜生境面积变化趋势和模拟分布区被保护区覆盖程度等4个指标进行评分。数据来源包括公开发表的研究文献、遥感数据、实地调查和公众收集。结果表明, 174个物种的保护状况整体呈变差趋势, 4项指标平均值均为负值。单个物种保护状况改善的有26种, 维持原状的有32种, 变差的有116种。本文还对2000-2013年间发表的涉及746个受威胁物种的9,338篇研究文献进行了梳理, 结果表明被研究物种数和文献数都逐年上升, 但每年被研究的物种不到1/3。研究集中于明星物种和有经济价值的物种, 如大熊猫(Ailuropoda melanoleuca)的文献占了全部的11.33%, 大多数物种研究不足。分析表明即使是集中了最多保护资源的濒危物种, 其保护状况仍然是变差的。

关键词: 濒危物种, 保护成效, 评价标准, 文献研究

By establishing a set of grading standards, conservation effectiveness was assessed rapidly for 174 of the most concerned endangered species in China, including all the Category I National Protected plant and animal species, and avian species defined as CR and EN by the IUCN Red List. Based on the data from published research articles, satellite remote sensing, field surveys and information collected by citizen scientists, the assessment was obtained by grading population dynamics, information perfections, potential habitat changes and protected area coverage of simulated distributions. Results show that the overall conservation status deteriorated during 2000-2013. The average grades of all four indexes were negative. The conservation status of 26 species improved, while 32 species maintained their status and 116 species worsened. We also investigated the trends of 9,338 published research articles in reference to 746 threatened species during 2000-2013. The numbers of studied species and research articles increased every year, but less than 1/3 of the total threatened species had been studied in any single year. Research concentrated on the star species and the species with economic value, for example, the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) contributed to 11.33% of all research articles. On the other hand, scientific research and basic information were lacking in most other threatened species.

Key words: threatened species, conservation effectiveness, grading standard, literature review

表1

濒危物种保护成效评分标准"

评分标准
Grading standard
1 0 -1
种群动态
Population dynamics
数量稳定增长
Increasing stably
数量变化不大
No significant change
数量减少, 或极少而无恢复迹象
Significantly decreasing,or extremely small population without recovery
适宜生境变化
Potential habitat change
1%以上像元改善
Improving in >1% pixels
1%以内像元变化, 或不明
Changing in ±1% pixels, or unclear
1%以上像元恶化
Worsening in >1% pixels
信息完善程度
Information perfection
有行为学、繁育系统或遗传多样性文献
Literatures in behavior, breeding system or genetic diversity published
有种群和栖息地文献
Literatures in population and habitat published
只有分类学文献
Taxonomy literatures only
模拟分布区被保护区覆盖情况
Protected area coverage of simulated distribution
>15%
>15%
5-15%, 或不明
5-15%, or unclear
<5%
<5%

表2

保护评分最高和最低的物种"

评分最低的物种 Species with lowest grades 评分最高的物种 Species with highest grades
中文名
Chinese name
学名
Latin name
评分
Grades
中文名
Chinese name
学名
Latin name
评分
Grades
白鱀豚 Lipotes vexillifer -4 西藏野驴 Equus kiang 4
白鲟 Psephurus gladius -4 金雕 Aquila chrysaetos 3
野马 Equus przewalskii -4 珙桐 Davidia involucrata 3
Panthera pardus -4 黑鹳 Ciconia nigra 2
巧家五针松 Pinus squamata -4 东北红豆杉 Taxus cuspidata 2
四川苏铁 Cycas szechuanensis -4 台湾猴 Macaca cyclopis 2
中华水韭 Isoetes sinensis -4 台湾鬣羚 Capricornis crispus 2
野牛 Bos gaurus -4 伯乐树 Bretschneidera sinensis 2
云豹 Neofelis nebulosa -3 独叶草 Kingdonia uniflora 2
Pelochelys bibroni -3 斑尾榛鸡 Tetrastes sewerzowi 2
华盖木 Manglietiastrum sinicum -3 梅花鹿 Cervus nippon 2
灰腹角雉 Tragopan blythii -3 藏羚 Pantholops hodgsonii 2
云南蓝果树 Nyssa yunnanensis -3 大熊猫 Ailuropoda melanoleuca 2
儒艮 Dugong dugon -3 苏铁 Cycas revoluta 2

图1

2000-2013年间文献数量和被研究物种数量的年际 动态"

图2

2000-2013年间每年被研究物种数和文献篇数的相关性"

图3

2000-2013年间年文献数量和全国科技经费投入的相关性"

图4

文献的物种分布"

表3

国家重点保护野生动植物名录与IUCN物种红色名录受胁物种个数的比较"

国家重点保护野生动植物名录
National Protected Animal and Plant Species Checklists
IUCN物种红色名录
IUCN Red List
重叠物种数
Overlaps
分级
Category
物种(类群)数
Species (taxa)
numbe
分级
Category
物种数
Species
number
I 148 CR 118 81
II 381 EN 281 181
VU 388
EW 1
EX 4
总计
Total
约529
Ca. 529
792 262
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