生物多样性 ›› 2015, Vol. 23 ›› Issue (4): 519-526.doi: 10.17520/biods.2014223

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福建三都澳游泳动物种类组成及群落结构稳定性

宋普庆, 林龙山*(), 李渊, 钟指挥, 张然   

  1. 国家海洋局第三海洋研究所, 福建厦门 361005)① 叶金清 (2012) 官井洋大黄鱼的资源和生物学特征. 硕士学位论文, 上海海洋大学, 上海.
  • 收稿日期:2014-10-20 接受日期:2015-04-03 出版日期:2015-07-20
  • 通讯作者: 林龙山 E-mail:linlsh2005@126.com
  • 作者简介:

    # 共同第一作者

  • 基金项目:
    国家海洋局第三海洋研究所基本科研业务费专项基金(海三科2012013)、国家海洋局海洋国际合作及履约项目(2200207)、国家海洋专项资助项目(908-02-01-02;908-02-04-01)

Species composition and stability of nekton community structure in Sandu Bay, Fujian Province

Puqing Song, Longshan Lin*(), Yuan Li, Zhihui Zhong, Ran Zhang   

  1. Third Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Xiamen, Fujian 361005
  • Received:2014-10-20 Accepted:2015-04-03 Online:2015-07-20
  • Contact: Lin Longshan E-mail:linlsh2005@126.com
  • About author:

    # Co-first authors

利用2012-2013年三都澳渔业资源的定置张网调查资料, 应用物种多样性指数、数量生物量比较曲线(ABC曲线)及鱼类分类多样性指数等方法分析三都澳游泳动物种类组成特征和群落结构的稳定性。调查中共出现游泳动物195种, 隶属于17目64科125属, 其中鱼类143种, 甲壳类47种, 头足类5种。大黄鱼(Larimichthys crocea)在三都澳4个航次的调查中都是最主要的优势种类, 其他优势种类还包括叫姑鱼(Johnius belengerii)、白姑鱼(Argyrosomus argentatus)、虾虎鱼类和一些甲壳类。大黄鱼多为养殖群体, 其他优势种类的共同特征是个体小, 繁殖周期短, 生物量季节或年际间波动剧烈。物种多样性分析表明, 三都澳游泳动物群落平均Shannon-Wiener多样性指数为2.61, 9、10月高, 1、5月低。ABC曲线分析表明, 4次调查中群落结构存在明显的变化, 繁殖群体的补充、个体生长、捕捞、伏季休渔等是影响群落结构稳定性的因素。本次研究表明, 大黄鱼生物量的比例与Shannon-Wiener多样性指数呈极显著负相关(P < 0.01, R = -0.890), 与种类数呈显著负相关(P < 0.05, R = -0.563)。结合近年来的调查数据, 统计得到三都澳的现存鱼类约224种, 其平均分类差异指数(△+)为59.5, 分类差异变异指数(∧+)为260.8。相对于中国沿海其他海域, 三都澳鱼类群落分类学范围较小, 且群落间的分类地位关系极不均匀, 群落抗干扰的能力较差。

关键词: ABC曲线, 生物多样性, 分类多样性, 三都澳

In order to analyze the species composition and evaluate the stability of nekton community structure in Sandu Bay of Fujian Province, species diversity, an Abundance Biomass Comparison (ABC) curve and taxonomic diversity were described based on a net fishing survey conducted in Sandu Bay from October 2012 to September 2013. A total of 195 species belonging to 125 genera, 64 families and 17 orders were recorded including 143 fish species, 47 crustacean species and 5 cephalopod species. Larimichthys crocea was the most dominant species identified in all four surveys and most were escaped groups from fish farms. The other dominant species included Johnius belengerii, Argyrosomus argentatus, gobies, and several crustacean species, which were characteristized by small body size, short breeding period and seasonal or annual drastic fluctuations in biomass. The average Shannon-Wiener diversity index in Sandu Bay was 2.61, and higher in September and October than in January and May. ABC curve analysis showed that the community structure had obvious seasonal changes and the impacting factors may include internal factors and external factors such as the supplement of breeding groups, individual growth, fishery production, and summer fishing moratoriums. This study revealed that the biomass proportion of the large yellow croaker has a very significant negative correlation with Shannon-Wiener diversity index (P < 0.01, R = -0.890) and a significant negative correlation with species number (P < 0.05, R = -0.563). Combined with survey data from recent years, there were 224 fish species in Sandu Bay; based on this data, the average taxonomic distinctness (△+) and the variation in taxonomic distinctness (∧+) were tested. The result showed that the value of △+ in Sandu Bay was 59.5 and the value of ∧+ was 260.8. Compared with other coastal waters in China, the average taxonomic range in Sandu Bay was relatively narrow and the taxonomic status was extremely uneven, indicating the anti-interference ability of the fish community in Sandu Bay was poor.

Key words: ABC curve, biodiversity, taxonomic diversity, Sandu Bay

图1

福建三都澳游泳动物调查站位 (S1-S4: 调查站位)"

表1

三都澳游泳动物主要种类的相对重要性指数(IRI)"


种类 Species
采样月份 Sampling month
5 9 10 1
大黄鱼 Larimichthys crocea 4,966 3,147 2,175 4,813
龙头鱼 Harpodon nehereus 1,351 1,993
孔虾虎鱼 Trypauchen vagina 1,334 695
白姑鱼 Argyrosomus argentatus 1,393
髭缟虾虎鱼 Tridentiger barbatus 634
日本蟳 Charybdis japonica 475 663 707 479
日本囊对虾 Marsupenanaeus japonicus 460 473
拟矛尾虾虎鱼 Parachaeturichthys polynema 452
鲜明鼓虾 Alpheus distinguendus 421 1,432
须赤虾 Metapenaeopsis barbata 294
葛氏长臂虾 Palaemon gravieri 284 1,639
海鳗 Muraenesox cinereus 277
哈氏仿对虾 Parapenaeopsis hardwickii 1,067
棘头梅童鱼 Collichthys lucidus 953 671 658
纤手梭子蟹 Portunus gracilimanus 406
中华管鞭虾 Solenocera crassicornis 391 1,133
横纹东方鲀 Fugu oblongus 324
红星梭子蟹 Portunus sanguino 1,248
七丝鲚 Coilia grayii 643
黑鳃舌鳎 Cynoglossus roulei 573
斑鰶 Clupanodon punctatus 1,894
直额蟳 Charybdis truncata 958
褐斑三线舌鳎 Cynoglossus trigrammus 405
叫姑鱼 Johnius belengerii 354
矛尾虾虎鱼 Chaeturichthys stigmatias 309
双斑蟳 Charybdis bimaculata 282

图2

三都澳游泳动物多样性指数的季节变化(S1-S4: 调查站位)"

图3

大黄鱼生物量比例与种类数和多样性指数的关系"

图4

三都澳游泳动物ABC曲线"

图5

三都澳鱼类的平均分类差异指数和分类差异变异指数"

表2

不同海域鱼类分类多样性指数的比较"

区域
Area
平均分类差异指数
Average taxonomic distinctness
分类差异变异指数
Variation in taxonomic distinctness
参考文献
Reference
三都澳 Sandu Bay 59.5 260.8 本次调查
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东沙群岛 Dongsha Islands 55.2 110.0 史赟荣等, 2009
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