Biodiv Sci ›› 2023, Vol. 31 ›› Issue (4): 23020.  DOI: 10.17520/biods.2023020

• Special Feature: On the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Analysis of the main elements and implications of the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework

Jing Xu*(), Jinzhou Wang   

  1. State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Regional Eco-process and Function Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
  • Received:2023-01-31 Accepted:2023-03-16 Online:2023-04-20 Published:2023-04-20
  • Contact: *E-mail:


Background & Aim: The Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity adopted a new global biodiversity strategy—the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (the Kunming-Montreal GBF). The following five package outcomes were also adopted: Monitoring Framework; Mechanisms for Planning, Monitoring, Reporting and Review; Resource Mobilization; Capacity-Building and Development, Scientific and Technological Cooperation; and Genetic Resources Digital Sequence Information. Parties to the Convention need to implement the Kunming-Montreal GBF and its package of outcomes domestically. In order to facilitate China’s implementation of the Kunming-Montreal GBF, the paper briefly reviews the development process and the main contents of the Kunming-Montreal GBF and its package of outcomes.

Review Results: Comments on the global and national impact of the Kunming-Montreal GBF are given. In order to implement the Kunming-Montreal GBF, developed countries should enhance biodiversity financing and ensure the level of international funds related to biodiversity flowing to developing countries. Developing countries should revise or update national biodiversity strategies and action plans, monitor and report national implementation progress by using indicators, and accept review. China should host the inter-sessional process of the CBD and facilitate the implementation of the package deals of the Kunming-Montreal GBF.

Recommendations:Recommendations on how to implement the Kunming-Montreal GBF in China are provided: updating and revising the national biodiversity strategic action plan, formulating laws and policies to promote biodiversity mainstreaming, strengthening monitoring and evaluation of national implementation progress, promoting the development of biodiversity financing tools, and establishing partnerships with broad participation by the entire society.

Key words: Convention on Biological Diversity, Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework, Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan