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    Special Feature: On the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework
    Analysis of the main elements and implications of the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework
    Jing Xu, Jinzhou Wang
    Biodiv Sci. 2023, 31 (4):  23020.  doi:10.17520/biods.2023020
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    Background & Aim: The Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity adopted a new global biodiversity strategy—the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (the Kunming-Montreal GBF). The following five package outcomes were also adopted: Monitoring Framework; Mechanisms for Planning, Monitoring, Reporting and Review; Resource Mobilization; Capacity-Building and Development, Scientific and Technological Cooperation; and Genetic Resources Digital Sequence Information. Parties to the Convention need to implement the Kunming-Montreal GBF and its package of outcomes domestically. In order to facilitate China’s implementation of the Kunming-Montreal GBF, the paper briefly reviews the development process and the main contents of the Kunming-Montreal GBF and its package of outcomes.

    Review Results: Comments on the global and national impact of the Kunming-Montreal GBF are given. In order to implement the Kunming-Montreal GBF, developed countries should enhance biodiversity financing and ensure the level of international funds related to biodiversity flowing to developing countries. Developing countries should revise or update national biodiversity strategies and action plans, monitor and report national implementation progress by using indicators, and accept review. China should host the inter-sessional process of the CBD and facilitate the implementation of the package deals of the Kunming-Montreal GBF.

    Recommendations:Recommendations on how to implement the Kunming-Montreal GBF in China are provided: updating and revising the national biodiversity strategic action plan, formulating laws and policies to promote biodiversity mainstreaming, strengthening monitoring and evaluation of national implementation progress, promoting the development of biodiversity financing tools, and establishing partnerships with broad participation by the entire society.

    Convention on Biological Diversity: The current status, ongoing challenges, and future prospects of marine biodiversity conservation
    Yijia Geng, Ziyuan Li, Yu Tian
    Biodiv Sci. 2023, 31 (4):  22645.  doi:10.17520/biods.2022645
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    Aim: Marine biodiversity conservation has been an ongoing and important topic of focus at the Convention on Biological Diversity. The developmental context of issues along with changes in the conservation situation were discussed and analyzed, with the aim to identify the challenges facing marine biodiversity conservation. Based on these discussions, recommendations for future efforts will be provided.

    Review Results: Based on review of scientific literature and application of international assessment processes such as the Global Assessment of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, we found that significant progress has been made towards field work and the strategic goals of marine biodiversity conservation. But, we also identified the ongoing main challenges for marine biodiversity conservation, namely: (1) insufficient political will and action by all parties and stakeholders, (2) insufficient identification of global marine protected areas, and low protection effectiveness, (3) insufficient sources of funds, and (4) lack of cooperation for marine biodiversity protection.

    Recommendations: It is recommended to consider strengthening the formulation of protection policies concerning marine and coastal biodiversity conservation in the future; expansion of marine protected areas and increase in effectiveness of protection; strengthen resource mobilization and capacity building; and lastly, strengthen the cooperation between international organizations with improved multilateral agreements.

    The progress and prospect of the financial arrangements under the Convention on Biological Diversity
    Yixin Li, Yuanyuan Li, Yangxinyi Zhang, Wenhui Liu
    Biodiv Sci. 2023, 31 (4):  23077.  doi:10.17520/biods.2023077
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    Background & Aim: Matters relating to finance are critical to the implementation both for the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and the newly adopted “Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework” (GBF). Within the package of decisions adopted at the 15th Conference of the Parties (COP15) of the CBD, the Kunming-Montreal GBF and the decision on Resource Mobilization are those related to finance. The Kunming-Montreal GBF sets up clear quantitative financial goals “closing the biodiversity finance gap of \$700 billion per year” and “mobilizing at least \$200 billion per year by 2030 from all sources”. The decision on Resource Mobilization contains important institutional arrangements, namely the historic establishment of the Kunming-Montreal GBF Fund, the adoption of the new strategy for resource mobilization and the establishment of an advisory committee on resource mobilization, etc.

    Review Results: How quickly these goal-related commitments and institutional arrangements can be achieved is of paramount importance. This article, based on a systematic review of the finance-related decisions at COP15 and a comprehensive analysis of the key reports on biodiversity finance, provides an overview of the current status of biodiversity finance and an analysis of the new financial needs for the implementation of the CBD and the Kunming-Montreal GBF, with a view towards future arrangements.

    Recommendations: This article suggests that China should continue to strive for bilateral/multilateral grants, provide continuous and stable financial support for biodiversity, broaden the mechanism for realizing the value of ecological products, establish the mechanisms for access to and benefit sharing for genetic resources and DSI (Digital Sequence Information), and improve the system of compensation and damage compensation for biodiversity, so as to facilitate the implementation of the Kunming-Montreal GBF.

    Convention on Biological Diversity and its protocols: Negotiation, challenges and recommendations on the “capacity-building and development”
    Dini Zhang, Lei Wang, Xiaoqiang Lu, Changyong Wang, Yan Liu
    Biodiv Sci. 2023, 31 (4):  22588.  doi:10.17520/biods.2022588
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    Background & Aim: Capacity-building and development (CDD) is an integral part to implementing the protocols of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), and an effective means to put the new Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF) into action. CDD is crucial, in developing countries, for promoting the implementation of the CBD and achieve positive results. This paper aims to provide guidance for effective implementation of the Kunming-Montreal GBF and completion of its goals, and further explore policy priorities that could potentially address the issue.

    Review Results: It is known that none of the “Aichi Targets” have been fully achieved at the global level. Furthermore, the international community realizes the need to alter past approaches that were largely focused towards setting targets than taking actions. Here, we systematically review the policy decisions adopted by the Conferences of the Parties (COPs) to the CBD and its protocols in regard to CDD. The findings show that due to the increasing concerns for the CDD under CBD, the COPs recommend a reorienting of priorities from the long-term focus on information exchange and technology transfer to the establishment and performance of a complete institution for the CDD. The latest negotiation results and debates on the CDD contained in the Kunming-Montreal GBF are also presented.

    Challenges: The efforts to promote CDD under the CBD and its Protocols still face ongoing challenges, including insufficient co-finance, shortage of systematic needs assessment and inventory, limited knowledge and information sharing, lack of long-term and sustainable interventions, and inadequate synergy among biodiversity-related international conventions.

    Recommendations: Strategic recommendations to enhance the CDD are provided, namely, at the international level, (1) strengthening financial support; (2) national biodiversity strategies and action plans (NBSAP) to fully guarantee the implementation of capacity-building and development activities; (3) ensuring the projects and programs for the CDD are systematic, institution-oriented, sustainable; (4) improvement of the information clearing house; and (5) enhancing the synergy of biodiversity-related international conventions; and at the domestic level, (1) strengthening top-level design and employing the China National Commission for Biodiversity Conservation to coordinate the efforts related to biodiversity; (2) updating the NBSAP; (3) identifying capacity-building needs in the areas of biosecurity and genetic resources; (4) improving the publicity campaigns and the participation of various stakeholders; and (5) helping other developing countries to improve the CDD by means of the “Kunming Biodiversity Fund” and the “Belt and Road” to promote a responsible China.

    Original Papers: Plant Diversity
    The specialist-to-generalist ratio affects growth and defense strategy of invasive plant Alternanthera philoxeroides
    Yaochu Sun, Yuanfei Pan, Mu Liu, Xiaoyun Pan
    Biodiv Sci. 2023, 31 (4):  22632.  doi:10.17520/biods.2022632
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    Aims: Exotic plants experience the selective pressure of herbivores when being transplanted from their native range to a newly introduced range. The ability for exotic plants to undergo rapid adaptive evolution of their growth and defense traits is essential for successful invasion. Insects are a common threat to non-native plants and can be divided into two categories, specialist and generalist herbivores, according to herbivores specialization. Specialist herbivores and generalist herbivores will have different selection pressures on plant growth defense traits. However, under natural conditions, the specialist-to-generalist ratio may change in space and time, and the impact of this change on the evolution of growth and defense traits of exotic plants remains unclear. To investigate how specialist-to-generalist ratio affects the growth and defense traits of invasive plant, we conducted the following experiment.

    Methods: We conducted a common garden experiment in Yangpu District (121°30′ E, 31°20′ N), Shanghai City in which we grew invasive plant Alternanthera philoxeroides collected from both the native (Argentina) and the introduced range (China), and maize. After nine weeks of growth, we harvested all plants. We measured the following variables: total biomass, shoot biomass, storage root biomass, growth rate, root/shoot ratio, specific leaf area, specific stem length, branch intensity, leaf trichome density, triterpenoid saponin, flavones, tannins, and lignin.

    Results: There was no significant difference between specialist-to-generalist ratio and origin on the growth and defense traits of A. philoxeroides. However, a significant difference on the storage root biomass and root/shoot ratio of growth traits of A. philoxeroides populations from different ranges was measured. The storage root biomass and root/shoot ratio of the introduced population increased with the increase of the ratio of specialist herbivores. The storage root biomass and root/shoot ratio of the native population were completely opposite to those of the invasive population. In addition, by comparing the growth defense traits between native and introduced populations, it was found that the total biomass (-21.4%, P = 0.027), shoot biomass (-22.6%, P = 0.026), growth rate (-17.5%, P < 0.001) and flavonoids content (-38.4%, P = 0.010) of introduced population were significantly lower than native population, and the branch intensity (+357.9%, P < 0.001), specific stem length (+62.2%, P < 0.001), specific leaf area (+13.6%, P < 0.001) and leaf trichome density (+221.9%, P = 0.002) of the invasive population were significantly higher than native population.

    Conclusions: Our results indicate that invasive plants will respond to the continuous change of the specialist- to-generalist ratio by changing their growth traits rather than their defense traits. These results enrich the current understanding of the evolution of growth defense of exotic plants.

    Distribution pattern and floristic regionalization of wild seed plants in Zhejiang Province, China
    Bingyang Ding, Xiaofeng Jin, Yonghua Zhang, Genyou Li, Zhenghai Chen, Fanggang Zhang
    Biodiv Sci. 2023, 31 (4):  22515.  doi:10.17520/biods.2022515
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    Aims: Understanding plant distribution pattern and floristic regionalization provides the basis for resource development, species introduction, diversity protection, and long-term planning. Here, the distribution pattern of wild seed plants and the diversity of genera and species in different areas of the Zhejiang Province were analyzed, and the floristic regionalization was discussed.

    Method: Based on the distribution data of wild seed plants in Zhejiang, recorded in volumes 2-10 of the recently published Flora of Zhejiang (New Edition), the distribution pattern and floristic regionalization of wild seed plants in Zhejiang was conducted using statistical and analytical methods of species and genera in this study.

    Results: Excluding infraspecies, there are 4,430 species of seed plants (representing 1,469 genera in 212 families) in Zhejiang Province, of which 3,344 species are native and wild (representing 1,085 genera in 190 families), including 1,405 species and 45 genera that are endemic to China. At the genus level, there are 548 genera that are widely distributed, which accounts for 50.5% of all wild seed plants in Zhejiang. The most genera are found in the Donggong Mountain area (851), the Southeast Zhejiang coastal area (822) and the Tianmu Mountain area (818) and the least in the North Zhejiang plain (only 411 genera). At the species level, the most are in the Donggong Mountain area (2,304), followed by the Tianmu Mountain and Xianxialing Mountain areas (more than 2,000 species each), and the least are in the North Zhejiang plain area (only 721 species).

    Conclusions: According to the distribution of seed plants in Zhejiang, we identify four groups: widely-distributed species (904), common species (846), limited species (1,000), and area-unique species (594). Based on the distribution of 1,846 common and limited species, we recognize six distribution patterns: North Zhejiang (including 171 species), South Zhejiang (280 species), West Zhejiang (109 species), East Zhejiang (93 species), West to Southeast Zhejiang (98 species), and Northeast to Southwest Zhejiang (37 species). The others are s cattered or disjuncted in hills and mountains. According to the genera and species distribution of wild seed plants in Zhejiang and the results of previous studies on regionalization, the flora of Zhejiang is divided into two regions (East China and the Lingnan mountainous region), three subregions (Huang-Huai plain subregion, southern Zhejiang mountainous subregion and the Northern Fujian mountainous subregion), and five districts (North Zhejiang plain district, North to Central Zhejiang mountainous and hilly district, Northeast Zhejiang coastal district, South to Central Zhejiang mountainous and hilly district, and the Southeast Zhejiang coastal district).

    Identification and protection of suitable habitat hotspots for threatened bryophytes in Hainan
    Chang Deng, Jiewei Hao, De Gao, Mingxun Ren, Lina Zhang
    Biodiv Sci. 2023, 31 (4):  22580.  doi:10.17520/biods.2022580
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    Aims: Hainan is rich in tropical bryophytes, of which as many as 29 species are known to be threatened. But due to the lack of attention and priority for the past time, conservation efforts need to be advanced. The study was to propose the conservation priority areas and highlight key areas for threatened bryophytes in Hainan, providing a scientific basis for bryophyte protection.

    Method: In the present study, the maximum entropy (MaxEnt) model was used to simulate the suitable habitats of 27 threatened bryophytes in Hainan, and suitable habitats were identified and classified.

    Results: The suitable areas and distribution patterns of selected bryophytes varied greatly. According to the proportion of suitable threatened bryophyte species richness (SR) to peak richness (40% < SR ≤ 60%, 60% < SR ≤ 80% and SR > 80%), the suitable habitat hotspots were divided into three levels: (1) The “relative” hotspot area, the richness of threatened bryophytes ranged from 11 to 15, was the largest, approximately 2,527.2 km2. (2) The “significant” hotspot area, whose richness ranged from 16 to 20, was ca. 2,503.2 km2. (3) The “extreme” hotspot area was the smallest, about 259.8 km2, with species richness ranging from 21 to 25. Hotspots at all levels were mainly distributed in National Park of Hainan Tropical Rainforest, especially the “extreme” hotspots, which were typically distributed in the tropical cloud forests with an altitude of about 1,100 m (-1,300 m) above sea level, belonging to the core areas of National Park of Hainan Tropical Rainforest. Among the environmental variables tested, the mean diurnal range (Bio2) contributed the most to 11 bryophytes (46.2%-91.3%), and the temperature annual range (Bio7) contributed the most to 8 bryophytes (31.9%-82.2%), which significantly affected the distribution of threatened bryophytes in Hainan.

    Suggestions: Suggestions for the protection of threatened bryophytes in Hainan are as follows: (1) Background surveys of bryophytes in Hainan are required to obtain distribution information and dynamic changes of threatened bryophytes. (2) Adjust the threat levels of some bryophyte species and place threatened bryophytes in the wild plant protection list of Hainan Province. (3) Protect the cloud forest regions and classify them as key areas in National Park of Hainan Tropical Rainforest. (4) Strengthen the monitoring of vascular plants in suitable hotspots. (5) Classify the hotspots outside the national park as ecological restoration areas, as well as strengthen the scientific research on secondary forest and plantation ecology and bryophyte community restoration of all hotspots.

    Original Papers: Animal Diversity
    DNA metabarcoding dietary analysis of six sympatric small mammals at the Laojunshan National Nature Reserve, Sichuan Province
    Buqing Peng, Ling Tao, Jing Li, Ronghui Fan, Shunde Chen, Changkun Fu, Qiong Wang, Keyi Tang
    Biodiv Sci. 2023, 31 (4):  22474.  doi:10.17520/biods.2022474
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    Aim: Revealing the mechanisms that determine species coexistence is of great importance for the development of community ecology theoretical concepts/ which is one of the hot spot for biodiversity and conservation biology research. Niche separation is an important reason for the coexistence of sympatric species.

    Methods: To determine the dietary composition of six sympatric small mammals at the Laojunshan Nature Reserve, Sichuan, the animal samples were trapped and the luminal stomach contents were collected. We used two DNA metabarcoding assays (chloroplast RbcL and mitochondrial COI region sequences) to better understand their dietary diversity, niche breadth and overlap.

    Results: (1) Lepidoptera (relative abundance: 3.76%-42.33%) and Diptera (2.59%-62.63%) were the prey items identified, while Poales (0.02%-45.33%) and Fabales (0.19%-38.95%) were the taxa that constituted the majority of plant-derived foods. In addition to this, inter-specific differences in relative abundance of these main food items were observed. (2) We found that there was a significant trophic overlap (Ojk = 0.63) of animal derived diet between Rattus tanezumi and Blarinella griselda. A certain degree of food niche overlap was found between the other sampled species, yet there were still significant differences in the composition and proportion of predominant food items. (3) A certain inter-specific difference in α diversity of animal derived food between the six small mammals was detected, while almost no differences in α diversity of plant derived foods were found between the six small mammals. Niviventer confucianus had the highest dietary diversity, with higher niches breadth (8.2-11.1) of both plant- and animal-derived diets than those of the other five species.

    Conclusion: These results suggest that, although the dietary overlap is observed in six small mammals, they can reduce foods competition and achieve long-term coexistence through separating the types and proportions of the main food items. Furthermore, this study reveals the mechanism of maintaining the diversity of various small mammal species at the Laojunshan Nature Reserve. This study also contributes to the ecological management of rodent-like animals in this area. Considering the limitations of our sample size and time scale of sampling, we believe that increasing sample size and time span can be more effective at identifying inter-specific relationship through DNA metabarcoding.

    Trophic levels and trophic niches of fish from the Bering Sea and Chukchi Sea
    Shusen Fu, Puqing Song, Yuan Li, Yuanyuan Li, Ran Zhang, Hushun Zhang, Rui Wang, Longshan Lin
    Biodiv Sci. 2023, 31 (4):  22521.  doi:10.17520/biods.2022521
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    Aims: The internal structure of the Arctic marine ecosystem is changing and its stability is facing unprecedented challenges due to the influences of climate warming. Since fish are important resources for nutrient transport and transfer in Arctic marine food webs, understanding their feeding habits and interspecific trophic relationships is the key to grasping the changes occurring in the Arctic food web structure and function. This study was carried out to obtain basic biological information about fish in the Bering Sea and Chukchi Sea, as well as to provide reference for subsequent studies on trophic ecology.

    Methods: We analyzed the stable isotope ratio, trophic level range and trophic niche width and overlap of fish from the Bering Sea and Chukchi Sea using stable isotope techniques based on fish samples obtained from the 6th (2014) and 8th to 11th (2017-2020) Arctic scientific expedition trawl surveys by China.

    Results: A total of 29 species of 8 families and 21 genera of fish were captured, and the mean δ13C value of all fish samples was -19.36‰ (-23.88‰ to -15.78‰), the mean value of the δ15N value was 16.16‰ (11.80‰-20.37‰), and the total trophic levels ranged from 2.42 to 4.62, with a mean value of 3.74. The results of the trophic niches indicated that each fish species had some degree of overlap with several other species, but most species did not overlap completely with each other and maintained some singularity. Boreogadus saida had the largest corrected standard ellipse area (SEAc = 5.51); Artediellus atlanticus had the smallest width of the trophic niche (SEAc = 0.85).

    Conclusion: This present study provides basic background information on the trophic ecology in Arctic seas for further study of the food web structure and an in-depth analysis of the response of Arctic marine ecosystems to climate change.

    Protozoan community diversity and its impact factor in the middle reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River in the wet season
    Qing Yang, Xiaodong Li, Shengxian Yang, Xin Chao, Huiqiu Liu, Sang Ba
    Biodiv Sci. 2023, 31 (4):  22500.  doi:10.17520/biods.2022500
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    Aim: The Yarlung Zangbo River is an important water system in China, and as a high-altitude river in the Tibetan Plateau, its special environmental conditions make its aquatic ecosystem valuable to study. In recent years, studies on the aquatic ecology of the Yarlung Zangbo River have gradually increased, but studies focusing on protozoa are rare. The aim of this study was to explore the community dynamics of protozoa in the middle Yarlung Zangbo River and its driving factors, and to provide basic data and decision-making references for further studies on the Yarlung Zangbo River as well as for the monitoring and conservation of the Tibetan Plateau water environment.

    Methods: 18S rDNA high-throughput sequencing technology was used to study the protozoa diversity, and the physicochemical factors were measured on site of water bodies at 28 sample sites in the middle reaches of the Yarlung Zangbo River (Qushui County to Pai Town) in July 2021 (wet season). The α diversity of community was analyzed by Shannon diversity index, Simpson diversity index, Pielou evenness index and richness index; the β diversity of community was analyzed by Jaccard difference index; analysis of the interspecific relationships was analyzed by co-occurrence networks; the influence of physicochemical factors on the diversity of the protozoan community was studied by correlation and bioenvironmental (BIOENV) analysis.

    Results: Cercozoa, Ciliophora and Dinoflagellata were dominant on both mainstream and tributary reaches. With regard to community diversity, Shannon diversity was significantly different between the mainstream and tributary reaches; β diversity was dominated by the turnover component in both reaches, and there was a significant distance-decay trend in the protozoan community in both reaches. Protozoan species interactions were dominated by synergism. Electrical conductivity (EC), water temperature (WT), turbidity (TUR), and total nitrogen (TN) were the main environmental factors affecting α diversity of protozoan communities; WT and altitude (ALT) were the main environmental factors affecting β diversity of protozoan communities. The main environmental factors affecting the protozoan communities in the tributaries were pH, WT and ALT combinations, while the main environmental factor affecting the protozoan communities in the mainstream was EC.

    Conclusion: Protozoan community diversity in the study area is spatially variable in two reaches of the mainstream and tributaries, β diversity is dominated by turnover components, and community similarity has a clear trend of geographical decay. The mainstream protozoan community is the most stable and sensitive to environmental changes. The dynamic changes in protozoan community diversity are the result of the combined influence of multiple environmental factors.

    Original Papers: Microbial Diversity
    The common garden environment and genetic differentiation jointly influence the diversity and community structure of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the rhizosphere soil of three Caragana species
    Lulu Wei, Tingting Xu, Yuanyuan Li, Zhe Ai, Fei Ma
    Biodiv Sci. 2023, 31 (4):  22477.  doi:10.17520/biods.2022477
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    Aim: Environmental and genetic factors are believed to be the main drivers of variation of plant function traits, which may further influence rhizosphere soil bacteria through root exudates. However, it still remains unclear whether the genetic differentiation would affect the diversity and community structure of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the rhizosphere soil of plant species.

    Method: A common garden experiment was established to examine the diversity and community structure of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the rhizosphere soil of three Caragana from different provenances by using high-throughput sequencing techniques, which was subsequently correlated with the provenance climates and common garden soil properties to investigate how the environmental factor and genetic differentiation affect the rhizosphere nitrogen-fixing bacterial diversity and community structure.

    Result: The present results demonstrated that the rhizosphere nitrogen-fixing bacteria of three Caragana species belonged to 6 phyla, 9 classes, 18 orders, 21 families, 33 genera and 72 species. Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia and Cyanobacteria were the main dominant phyla of the three Caragana species of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the rhizosphere soil, and Mesorhizobium, Azohydromonas and Bradyrhizobium were the dominant genera. There were no significant differences in the diversity and community structure of rhizosphere nitrogen-fixing bacteria among the three Caragana species, but significant differences in the α diversity index between provenances were observed in C. liouana and C. roborovskyi (P < 0.05). The community structure between provenances of C. microphylla and C. roborovskyiwas also significant (P < 0.05). Furthermore, redundancy analysis showed that soil pH of the common garden and mean annual temperature (MAT) of provenance were the dominant factors respectively affecting the diversity and community of rhizosphere nitrogen-fixing bacteria of the three Caragana species.

    Conclusion: In summary, our results indicate that the common garden environment and genetic differentiation jointly shape the diversity and community structure of nitrogen-fixing bacteria in the rhizosphere soil of Caragana species. This research can provide important theoretical basis and data support for the ecological adaptation mechanism and introduction and cultivation of Caragana.

    Effects of soil microbial community characteristics on soil multifunctionality in sand-fixation shrublands
    Yuanyuan Xiao, Wei Feng, Yangui Qiao, Yuqing Zhang, Shugao Qin
    Biodiv Sci. 2023, 31 (4):  22585.  doi:10.17520/biods.2022585
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    Aims: Over the past 30 years, a range of ecological restoration measures such as aerial seeding and grazing prohibition have been conducted for desertification control in the Mu Us Desert, and significant vegetation greenness have been achieved in improving the regional ecological environment; however, the changes in soil multifunctionality after vegetation restoration are still unclear, in particular the influence of soil microorganisms on soil multifunctionality.

    Methods: In this study, soils of shrublands established at the same time in the Mu Us Desert, and dominated by Artemisia ordosica, Salix psammophila, Caragana korshinskii, respecitively, were investigated. Soil microbial community structure was determined using high-throughput sequencing, and soil multifunctionality was calculated by the Z-score method.

    Results: There were significant differences in soil organic carbon content, total nitrogen content, total phosphorus content, microbial biomass carbon content, and microbial biomass nitrogen content among three shrub soils (A. ordosica shrubland > S. psammophila shrubland > C. korshinskii shrubland). Soil invertase activity, alkaline phosphatase activity, and multifunctionality were significantly higher in A. ordosica and S. psammophila shrubland than that in C. korshinskii shrubland. Soil microbial Chao 1 index, observed species number and Shannon index in A. ordosica shrubland was significantly higher than that in C. korshinskii shrubland. The net relatedness index of soil microbes in C. korshinskii shrubland was significantly lower than that in the other two types of lands. Shannon index, Faith’s phylogenetic diversity and network topology properties (nodes, edges, linkage density) in the three shrublands and the net relatedness index in C. korshinskii shrubland were positively correlated with soil multifunctionality. Soil microbial network topological properties, species diversity, and phylogenetic diversity explained 24.46%, 19.72%, and 5.92% of the variation in soil multifunctionality, respectively. Structural equation modeling showed that soil microbial diversity increased soil multifunctionality indirectly by promoting network structure.

    Conclusion: The results indicate that different shrub soils have different effects on soil microorganisms and multifunctionality, and soil microbial diversity influence soil ecosystem functions mainly through positive regulation of microbial interspecific relationships. The results of the study help to understand the effects of different vegetation restoration measures on soil functions from the perspective of soil microorganisms, and can provide a theoretical basis for the selection of plant species for desertification control.

    Original Papers: Genetic Diversity
    Population genetic structure of Pelteobagrus vachelli in the upper Yangtze River based on genome re-sequencing
    Fei Xiong, Hongyan Liu, Dongdong Zhai, Xinbin Duan, Huiwu Tian, Daqing Chen
    Biodiv Sci. 2023, 31 (4):  22391.  doi:10.17520/biods.2022391
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    Aims: Pelteobagrus vachelli is an important economic fish in the Yangtze River. Nevertheless, it shows a trend of younger age and miniaturization, and the number of reproductive population above the third age was small, which is not benefit to the long-term maintenance of its resources. Therefore, more attention and conservation measure are needed for this species. The aim of this study is to clarify genetic diversity and genetic structure of P. vachelli.

    Methods: We collected 136 samples of eight different river sections (Taipingxi, Banan, Hechuan, Minjiangkou, Yibin, Shaonüping, Huixi, Fengjiaping) from the Three Gorges Dam to Baihetan Dam in the upper Yangtze River. High-throughput SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) markers through genome re-sequencing method was used to study genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of P. vachellipopulations.

    Results: The number of SNP and nucleotide diversity of Taipingxi and Banan populations in the Three Gorges Reservoir region were significantly higher than those in the other populations, and there were three genetic branches and abundant genetic sources in the two populations. However, there was only one genetic branch and single genetic source in Minjiangkou, Yibin, Shaonüping and Fengjiaping populations. The populations could be divided into three distinct genetic groups with great genetic differentiation. All individuals in Fengjiaping and Minjiangkou belonged to group 1, all individuals in Shaonüping and Yibin belonged to group 2, Huixi and Hechuan populations had two genetic branches (group 1 and group 2), and Banan and Taipingxi populations had three genetic branches (group 1, group 2 and group 3). The SNP number and nucleotide diversity were significantly affected by channel slope. The genetic differentiation was not related to geographical distance and isolated time.

    Conclusion: The upstream populations with lower genetic diversity are more prone to genetic drift and thus need more attention in the fish protection. There are three distinct genetic structures in the upper Yangtze River, which can be regarded as three different genetic units for management of germplasm resource.

    Bryophytes diversity of Tianmushan National Nature Reserve, Zhejiang Province
    Xing Chen, Shuwen Tu, Zun Dai, Shuang Gao, Youfang Wang, Shichen Xing, Bojia Wei, Luyan Tang, Ruiping Shi, Xiaorui Wang, Yongying Liu, Dongping Zhao, Xia Tang, Xue Yao, Mingshui Zhao, Hanxing Wu, Xiangbin Qi, Jian Zhang, Min Li, Jian Wang
    Biodiv Sci. 2023, 31 (4):  22649.  doi:10.17520/biods.2022649
    Abstract ( 651 )   HTML ( 43 )   PDF (9693KB) ( 810 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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    Aim: Bryophytes are commonly overlooked in field observations and collections due to their small size, making it difficult to obtain an objective and exhaustive checklist of bryophytes in a region. As a result, there are great limitations in the general study and conservation of bryophyte diversity. Taking Tianmushan National Nature Reserve (TNNR) in Zhejiang as an example, this paper aims to investigate the diversity of bryophytes by sampling strategy combining two methods, namely floristic habitat sampling (FHS) method and plot sampling (PS) method.

    Methods: Using the two sampling methods (FHS and PS), the study systematically investigated the diversity of bryophytes in different vegetation types along the elevational gradients of the reserve, and compiled a bryophyte checklist in this reserve by combining the current and historical information.

    Results: There are 394 species of bryophytes obtained from 143 genera in 56 families, including 103 species of liverworts obtained from 30 genera in 16 families and 291 species of mosses obtained from 113 genera in 40 families, with 5 of these species being endangered. Compared with the historical data of the reserve, 4 families, 31 genera and 182 species were newly added in this study. Among them, 1 family, 8 genera and 33 species were newly records in Zhejiang Province. The FHS and PS methods contributed 81% and 72% of the total number of species, respectively, but when the survey was restricted to epiphytic habitats only, the total number of species and the newly added species obtained by the PS method were higher than those by the FHS method. Although the number of species from the survey of eight plots/tree (represented a high sampling effort) was significantly higher than the results of two plots/tree, the sampling results of only two plots/tree (only sampling from the 0.3 m and 1.5 m of a tree) contributed 75% of the total richness.

    Conclusion: The results indicated the sampling strategy in this study obtained a high number of newly-added bryophyte species. Further, since the species composition indicates great differences in the temporal gradient, it is recommended to conduct similar surveys and studies in other nature reserves in an effort to update the bryophytes checklist of each reserve, and to provide the latest detailed information for researching bryophyte conservation.

    Technology and Methodology
    Importance of collection strategy on detection probability and species diversity of epiphyllous liverworts
    Xue Yao, Xing Chen, Zun Dai, Kun Song, Shichen Xing, Hongyu Cao, Lu Zou, Jian Wang
    Biodiv Sci. 2023, 31 (4):  22685.  doi:10.17520/biods.2022685
    Abstract ( 257 )   HTML ( 10 )   PDF (6095KB) ( 345 )   Supplementary Material   Save
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    Aims: Epiphyllous liverworts mainly grow on the leaf surface of vascular plants in tropical and subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests, which are a complex group of bryophytes. Due to their special physiological and ecological characteristics, epiphyllous liverworts have great potential to become an indicator of climate change. To achieve this goal, detailed information on species diversity and distribution is required. In order to explore whether the experience and sampling intensity of observers significantly affects the detection probability and species diversity of epiphyllous liverworts in field surveys, the present study conducted systematic sampling and comparative analysis of the epiphyllous liverworts in the Wuyanling National Nature Reserve.

    Methods: Through three repeated collections by four collectors with different collection experience at the same time (30 minutes per person) and in the same area (Tieluji to Huangjiadai), this study analyzed the differences between the number of leaves with epiphyllous liverworts and liverwort diversity among the four observers.

    Results: There are 36 species of epiphyllous liverworts obtained from 11 genera and 5 families. One species (Makinoa crispata) was newly recorded in the area and reported as epiphyllous species for the first time. The observer’s experience has no obvious impact on the detection probability of epiphyllous liverworts, but has a significant impact on the species diversity, especially for the diversity of general species and dominant species. It is speculated that this difference is mainly caused by the collection strategy of different observers. Meanwhile, this study also showed that the species diversity of epiphyllous liverworts increased with the increase of sampling intensity, and the collection results jointly participated by the four observers reflected a high sampling adequacy.

    Conclusion: The results show that for epiphyllous liverworts, a group that is often considered difficult to collect and identify, with necessary pre-collection experience training, non-professional observers also can perform conduct surveys of epiphyllous liverworts.

    Research progress on the effect of intraspecific personality differences on seed dispersal in rodents
    Jiming Cheng, Huimin He, Hongyu Niu, Hongmao Zhang
    Biodiv Sci. 2023, 31 (4):  22446.  doi:10.17520/biods.2022446
    Abstract ( 477 )   HTML ( 194 )   PDF (1348KB) ( 519 )   Save
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    Background & Aims:The relationship between rodents and seeds represents an integral component of the structure and functional maintenance of forest ecosystems. Previous literature has characterized how this relationship may influence aspects of rodent behavior, population dynamics, community structures, interspecific cooperation and competition, plant seed characteristics, and environmental factors. However, there is a dearth of literature examining the effects of intraspecific variation of rodents on seed dispersal. We aim to review how intraspecific traits (especially personalities) of rodents affect seed dispersal, which it may present an important alternative path towards understanding the wide variation of seed fates.

    Progress: Empirical investigations have supported the notion that animal personalities are one important feature of intraspecific variation between animals. Despite this, few studies have aimed to test the ecological repercussions (i.e. seed dispersal) that result from varying rodent personalities. This presents a major limitation, as it creates a significant gap in our understanding of how rodent personalities influence seed dispersal and plant regeneration mechanisms. In order to better understand this gap study, we introduce the progress in the research of rodent personality and then introduce the common methods for personality measurements of rodents (e.g. open-field test, emergence test and hole-board test). We highlight the effect of rodent personality on seed dispersal and specifically point out the relationship between the single personality (not behavioral syndromes) of rodents (e.g. boldness, activity and exploration) and seed dispersal. Finally, we summarize the ecological, evolutionary, and conservation consequences of rodent personality in mediating seed dispersal.

    Going Forward: More research is needed to design both suitable methods to evaluate personality characteristics of wild rodents, as well as to develop long-term monitoring techniques that would allow for longitudinal investigation of the relationships between personality variation in rodents and seed dispersal.

    Research progress on ecological functions and community assembly of plant microbiomes
    Qing Zeng, Chao Xiong, Mei Yin, Anhui Ge, Lili Han, Limei Zhang
    Biodiv Sci. 2023, 31 (4):  22667.  doi:10.17520/biods.2022667
    Abstract ( 540 )   HTML ( 34 )   PDF (1579KB) ( 661 )   Save
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    Background & Aim: Plants harbor large and highly diverse microbial communities in every compartment niche, including the surfaces and interiors of all plant organs. These microorganisms, namely plant microbiomes, have co-evolved with host plant for over hundreds of millions of years and play important roles in plant nutrient uptake, growth promotion, disease resistance and adaptation to environmental stresses as “holobionts” of the host plant. The rapid development of multi-omics approaches in recent decades has greatly promoted the research on diversity, composition, functions and driver factors of plant microbiomes and plant-microbiome interaction mechanisms. However, the current understanding and utilization of the plant microbiome remain inadequate in comparison to soil microbiome.

    Progresses: This review summarized the recent progresses on the diversity, composition, functions and mechanisms of plant microbiomes in regulating plant growth and development, promoting nutrient uptake, improving disease resistance and adaption to environmental stresses. We further reviewed the driving factors of plant microbiome community assembly, from the respective of host selection, environmental factors and microbial interactions. The complex plant-microbe interactions that shape plant microbiome community and regulate their beneficial functions for plants were highlighted.

    Perspectives: We prospect that more research efforts will be put towards core microbiome mining, synthetic community construction and application, precise screening of plant genetic loci affecting beneficial microbe colonization, and unraveling plant-microbiome interaction mechanisms at the plant-microbial community level. Overall, a comprehensive understanding of plant microbial community assembly and ecological functions and the mechanisms is vital for future management and manipulation of plant microbiomes for ecosystem health and agricultural sustainability.

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