生物多样性 ›› 2017, Vol. 25 ›› Issue (7): 765-773.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2016204

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中国石松类和蕨类植物的红色名录评估

董仕勇1,*(), 左政裕1,2, 严岳鸿3, 向建英4   

  1. 1 (中国科学院华南植物园植物资源保护与可持续利用重点实验室, 广州 510650)
    2 (中国科学院大学, 北京 100049)
    3 (上海辰山植物园, 中国科学院上海辰山植物科学研究中心, 上海 201602)
    4 (西南林业大学云南生物多样性研究院, 昆明 650224) ;
  • 收稿日期:2016-07-24 接受日期:2016-10-27 出版日期:2017-07-20 发布日期:2017-07-21
  • 通讯作者: 董仕勇
  • 作者简介:具体评估过程包括信息汇总(各个渠道的标本信息、野外调查信息及文献资料)、逐条比对IUCN红色名录等级与标准、确定等级、填写评估说明。在具体评估过程中, 针对不同类群设计信息调查表, 通过电话和邮件向多位同行征询物种的居群信息。
  • 基金资助:
    环境保护部“生物多样性保护专项”—中国高等植物红色名录;国家标本资源共享平台—植物子平台(2005DKA21401)

Red list assessment of lycophytes and ferns in China

Shiyong Dong1,*(), Zhengyu Zuo1,2, Yuehong Yan3, Jianying Xiang4   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Plant Resources Conservation and Sustainable Utilization, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650
    2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
    3 Shanghai Chenshan Plant Science Research Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences; Shanghai Chenshan Botanical Garden, Shanghai 201602
    4 Yunnan Academy of Biodiversity, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224;
  • Received:2016-07-24 Accepted:2016-10-27 Online:2017-07-20 Published:2017-07-21
  • Contact: Dong Shiyong

摘要:

为了解中国现存石松类和蕨类植物的灭绝风险, 我们按照IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria (Version 3.1)首次开展了国家水平上的红色名录评估。三人评估小组通过查阅文献、标本以及向其他30位中国蕨类同行征询物种信息等途径, 历经16个月的时间完成了此次评估。经统计, 中国目前所知的石松类和蕨类植物共计2,244种(包括亚种和变种, 但不包括变型和杂交种)。评估结果为: 极危(CR) 43种(其中6种可能已经灭绝)、濒危(EN) 68种、易危(VU) 71种、近危(NT) 66种、无危(LC) 1,124种、数据缺乏(DD) 872种。受威胁种类(包括VU、EN、CR)共计182种, 其中79种为中国特有或准特有种。特有而又极度濒危的植物有24种, 分别是梅山铁线蕨(Adiantum meishanianum)、荷叶铁线蕨(A. nelumboides)、秦氏莲座蕨(Angiopteris chingii)、壮乡铁角蕨(Asplenium cornutissimum)、海南实蕨(Bolbitis hainanensis)、直叶金发石杉(Huperzia quasipolytrichoides var. rectifolia)、东方水韭(Isoëtes orientalis)、台湾水韭(I. taiwanensis)、云贵水韭(I. yunguiensis)、台湾曲轴蕨(Paesia taiwanensis)、海南金星蕨(Parathelypteris subimmersa)、基羽鞭叶耳蕨(Polystichum basipinnatum)、洞生耳蕨(P. cavernicola)、微小耳蕨(P. minutissimum)、倒披针耳蕨(P. oblanceolatum)、岩穴耳蕨(P. speluncicola)、长柄新月蕨(Pronephrium longipetiolatum)、尾羽假毛蕨(Pseudocyclosorus caudipinnus)、罗浮牙蕨(Pteridrys lofouensis)、细叶凤尾蕨(Pteris angustipinna)、十字假瘤蕨(Selliguea cruciformis)、黑柄叉蕨(Tectaria ebenina)、河口叉蕨(T. hekouensis)和冈本氏岩蕨(Woodsia okamotoi), 它们应予以最优先保护。目前的红色名录只是一个初步评估结果, 若要得到一份更完整更准确的红色名录, 我们还需要做进一步的信息收集和评估工作, 特别要加强中国石松类和蕨类植物的分类学研究。今后评估工作中应重点关注的类群主要有莲座蕨属(Angiopteris)、铁角蕨属(Asplenium)、蹄盖蕨属(Athyrium)、对囊蕨属(Deparia)、鳞毛蕨属(Dryopteris)、石杉属(Huperzia)、耳蕨属(Polystichum)、凤尾蕨属(Pteris)、卷柏属(Selaginella)、水龙骨科(Polypodiaceae)和金星蕨科(Thelypteridaceae), 这些类群的物种分布与生存信息目前最为缺乏。

关键词: 生物多样性, 保护, 石松类, 蕨类植物, IUCN红色名录等级, IUCN红色名录标准, 受威胁种

Abstract

To understand the extinction risk of lycophytes and ferns in China, we conducted an evaluation of the two groups according to IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria (version 3.1) at the national level. During a period of 16 months, a group of three researchers evaluated each taxon by means of reading literature, checking herbarium specimens, and consulting colleagues working on lycophytes and ferns in China. A total of 30 colleagues share their knowledge, mainly regarding living status and distribution, on Chinese lycophytes and ferns. Here we present a preliminary red list of Chinese lycophytes and ferns which includes 2,244 taxa of the following categories: 43 Critically Endangered (CR, among which six have probably been already extinct) , 68 Endangered (EN), 71 Vulnerable (VU), 66 Near Threatened (NT), 1,124 Least Concern (LC), and 872 Data Deficient (DD). The taxa which have been taken into account include species, subspecies, and varieties only, with forms and hybrids excluded. Of the 182 threatened species (VU, EN, and CR), 79 are endemic (or nearly) to China. Conservation priorities are suggested for the 79 threatened and endemic species, especially the 24 critically endangered species which include Adiantum meishanianum, A. nelumboides, Angiopteris chingii, Asplenium cornutissimum, Bolbitis hainanensis, Huperzia quasipolytrichoides var. rectifolia, Isoëtes orientalis, I. taiwanensis, I. yunguiensis, Paesia taiwanensis, Parathelypteris subimmersa, Polystichum basipinnatum, P. cavernicola, P. minutissimum, P. oblanceolatum, P. speluncicola, Pronephrium longipetiolatum, Pseudocyclosorus caudipinnus, Pteridrys lofouensis, Pteris angustipinna, Selliguea cruciformis, Tectaria ebenina, T. hekouensis, and Woodsia okamotoi. This red list is of a preliminary nature as a rather high proportion of taxa belong to DD (up to 872, ca. 39 % of total taxa in China). To gain a complete and precise red list, further evaluation work, especially taxonomic revisions based on field observations, is needed for the lycophytes and ferns in China. These include Angiopteris, Asplenium, Athyrium, Deparia, Dryopteris, Huperzia, Polystichum, Pteris, Selaginella, Polypodiaceae, and Thelypteridaceae which are still relatively poorly understood in terms of taxonomy and conservation.

Key words: biodiversity, conservation, lycophytes, ferns, IUCN Red List categories, IUCN Red List criteria, threatened species