生物多样性 ›› 2016, Vol. 24 ›› Issue (9): 1062-1067.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2016131

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红色幼叶的适应意义探讨

陈颖卓1,,A;*(), 黄至欢2   

  1. 1 湖南第一师范学院城南书院, 长沙 410205
    2 广西喀斯特植物保育与恢复生态学重点实验室, 广西壮族自治区中国科学院植物研究所, 广西桂林 541006
  • 出版日期:2016-09-20 发布日期:2016-10-09
  • 通讯作者: 陈颖卓
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31400326)

A minireview on adaption of young leaf redness

Yingzhuo Chen1,*(), Zhihuan Huang2   

  1. 1 Chengnan Academy, Hunan First Normal University, Changsha 410205
    2 Guangxi Key Laboratory of Plant Conservation and Restoration Ecology in Karst Terrain, Guangxi Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guilin, Guangxi 541006
  • Online:2016-09-20 Published:2016-10-09
  • Contact: Chen Yingzhuo

摘要:

很多木本植物的叶片会在春季和其他时期产生花青素而呈现红色, 该现象已经被众多学者所关注。本文对已有工作作了归纳总结。研究表明: 这种广泛存在的现象需要消耗营养和能量并影响光合作用, 并非只是代谢的副产品。前人以秋季红叶为研究对象, 主要提出了两大类假说: 第一类假说认为红叶是对强光、低温、干旱等恶劣环境的适应; 第二类认为红叶是植物通过化学防御警示、适口性差、隐蔽自身或暴露啃食者等方式来防御植食动物的啃食。这两类假说也都存在争议。目前对红色幼叶的研究相对较少且多侧重其作为独立视觉信号的作用, 而未能将红叶与植物的其他防御策略结合进行讨论。今后的研究应当综合环境因子的影响和啃食者的视觉分析, 并与植物其他出现红色的器官对比, 深入探讨红色幼叶的适应意义。

关键词: 红叶, 机械保护, 群落, 啃食, 权衡

Abstract:

It is well known that the leaves of many woody plant species flush red rather than green during particular stages across their life span. Non-green leaf coloration caused by active synthesis of anthocyanin in plant organs at these stages costs the plant significant resources and energy, resulting in a reduction of primary photosynthesis. Therefore, it is likely that the coloration change is an active process and not simply a by-product of metabolism. Various hypotheses formulated to explain the potential reasons for coloration change can be divided into two categories: (1) those that suggest it is physiological adaptation for resistance to severe environments (high light, drought and low temperatures); and (2) those that suggest it protects against herbivory damage (coevolution, unpalatability, camouflage and anticamouflage, etc.). To date, there is no consensus on the relative validity of these ideas. The majority of previous work has focused on only a few species and autumn leaf color change. The relatively few studies done on red young leaves in spring mostly focused on red coloration as an independent visual signal. Future studies need to consider the chemical and mechanical defense of leaf redness, as well as the anthocyanins presented in other plant organs (thorns, stems and particularly, flowers), which may experience similar selection as leaves. The quantification of environmental factors and herbivore selection would be helpful in expansion our understanding in young leaf redness.

Key words: red leaf, mechanical protection, community, herbivore, trade-off