生物多样性 ›› 2021, Vol. 29 ›› Issue (3): 394-408.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2020316

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇

中国纳入一级保护的极小种群野生植物濒危机制

姚志1,2, 郭军2, 金晨钟2,*(), 刘勇波1,2,*()   

  1. 1.中国环境科学研究院国家环境保护区域生态过程与功能评估重点实验室, 北京 100012
    2.湖南人文科技学院农田杂草防控技术与应用协同创新中心, 湖南娄底 417000
  • 收稿日期:2020-08-07 接受日期:2020-10-15 出版日期:2021-03-20 发布日期:2021-03-01
  • 通讯作者: 金晨钟,刘勇波
  • 作者简介:E-mail: liuyb@craes.org.cn;
  • 基金资助:
    生态环境部生物多样性调查与评估项目(2019HJ2096001006)

Endangered mechanisms for the first-class protected Wild Plants with Extremely Small Populations in China

Zhi Yao1,2, Jun Guo2, Chenzhong Jin2,*(), Yongbo Liu1,2,*()   

  1. 1. State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Regional Eco-process and Function Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012
    2. Hunan Provincial Collaborative Innovation Center for Field Weeds Control, Hunan University of Humanities, Science and Technology, Loudi, Hunan 417000
  • Received:2020-08-07 Accepted:2020-10-15 Online:2021-03-20 Published:2021-03-01
  • Contact: Chenzhong Jin,Yongbo Liu

摘要:

为科学有效地保护极小种群野生植物, 明确其濒危机制具有重要意义。本文通过分析中国28种极小种群一级保护野生植物的种群特征及其濒危的内在原因和受威胁因素等, 总结了极小种群野生植物的濒危机制。极小种群野生植物的种群特征表现为遗传多样性低(13种)、衰退型种群结构(11种)、聚集型分布(11种)且分布区域狭窄(20种)。极小种群野生植物濒危的内在原因主要是繁殖力低(21种)和竞争能力弱(16种)。受威胁因素主要包括过度采挖等人类活动导致的种群数量减少(15种)和生境破坏(25种)以及气候变化等。因此, 除了保护极小种群野生植物免遭人类活动破坏, 保护策略应加强关注种群规模的维持和遗传多样性的保护。

关键词: 极小种群野生植物, 种群特征, 濒危机制, 人为干扰, 保护遗传多样性

Abstract

Aims: It is important to clearly identify the mechanisms that leads Wild Plants with Extremely Small Populations to become endangered as a way to effectively protect these WPESP.
Progresses: Here, we review the population characteristics, internal causes, and external threat factors for the first-class protected WPESP (28 species in China) and accordingly discuss the mechanisms leading to plants becoming endangered. Most WPESP displayed at least one of four population characteristics that likely resulted in their current endangered status. First, 20 WPESP species (such as Parakmeria omeiensis, Abies beshanzuensisand Cycas changjiangensis) had a narrow distribution area. Combining a narrow distribution area with low fertility and weak competitive capacity as intrinsic factors results in WPESP species to become endangered. Second, the distribution structure for 11 WPESP species was aggregated (e.g., Abies ziyuanensis, Kmeria septentrionalis, Metasequoia glyptostroboides). Third, there was declining population structures for 11 WPESP (e.g.,Thuja sutchuenensis,Metasequoia glyptostroboides, Pinus squamaia). This declining population structure has a negative role in maintaining stable population growth. The fourth population characteristic was that the genetic diversity of 13 WPESP species (46%) was low (e.g., Manglietia decidua, Abies yuanbaoshanensis, Cycas debaoensis). Low genetic diversity is unfavorable for these species to adapt to a changing environment and leads them to face risks of extinction. Twenty-one WPESP species (75%) exhibited low fertility, such as Acer yangjuechi and Abies beshanzuensis. The poor seed quality and low yield of WPESP species leads to a difficult regeneration of populations. The competitive capacity of 57% WPESP species (16) is relatively weak (e.g., Shaniodendron subaequaleandCathaya argyrophylla), which decreases growth and reproduction for these species. External factors that threaten WPESP mainly include overexploitation decreasing abundance (15 species), human activities and natural disasters destroying habitats (25 species), and geological movements plus climate change affecting the survival of WPESP.
Prospects: In addition to protecting WPESP against destruction from human activities, conservation strategies should focus on the maintenance of population size and the conservation of genetic diversity of WPESP.

Key words: Wild Plants with Extremely Small Populations (WPESP), population characteristics, endangered mechanism, human disturbance, conservation of genetic diversity