生物多样性 ›› 2018, Vol. 26 ›› Issue (4): 333-345.DOI: 10.17520/biods.2017251

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长江流域农作物起源及其与生物多样性特征的关联

赵耀1, 陈家宽1,2,*()   

  1. 1 南昌大学生命科学研究院流域生态学研究所, 南昌 330031
    2 复旦大学生物多样性与生态工程教育部重点实验室, 上海 200438
  • 收稿日期:2017-09-14 接受日期:2018-02-06 出版日期:2018-04-20 发布日期:2018-09-11
  • 通讯作者: 陈家宽
  • 作者简介:# 共同第一作者
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学青年基金(31600293)

The origin of crops in the Yangtze River Basin and its relevance for biodiversity

Yao Zhao1, Jiakuan Chen1,2,*()   

  1. 1 Center for Watershed Ecology, Institute of Life Science, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031
    2 Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, Institute of Biodiversity Science, Fudan University, Shanghai 200438
  • Received:2017-09-14 Accepted:2018-02-06 Online:2018-04-20 Published:2018-09-11
  • Contact: Chen Jiakuan
  • About author:# Co-first authors

摘要:

长江流域的农耕文明是中华文明的重要组成部分。作为世界著名的农作物起源中心之一, 长江流域拥有丰富的生物多样性, 孕育了大量的栽培植物。本文梳理了起源于长江流域的农作物的资料以及新石器时代文化遗址的植物遗存信息; 结合对长江流域的自然环境特征与全新世以来植被变化的总结, 尝试厘清长江流域对植物资源利用的动态变化, 探讨本地栽培植物与生物多样性的关联。结果表明长江流域农耕文明以稻作为最主要的生产方式, 驯化了大量果树与水生蔬菜, 反映出对本地亚热带常绿阔叶林与湿地的依赖与适应。与其他流域相比, 长江流域具有相对优越的生态要素配置, 其驯化作物类型表现出典型的亚热带湿润森林植被区特征。研究长江流域农作物驯化相关的自然与人类因素, 有助于我们更好地把握长江流域农耕文明的起源。本文不但可为长江流域植物遗传资源的保护与开发提供参考, 而且对于推进长江流域的生态文明建设和可持续发展具有指导作用。

关键词: 长江流域, 农作物, 农耕文明, 植被, 气候, 生物多样性

Abstract:

The agricultural civilization that originated in the Yangtze River Basin is an important part of Chinese civilization. Being one of the world-famous crop origin centers, the Yangtze River Basin is rich in biodiversity, and has bred many cultivated plants. This review has collected data of crops that originated in the Yangtze River Basin and information of plant remains found in Neolithic archaeological sites. By summarizing the environmental features and tracking the changes of vegetation since the Holocene in the Yangtze River Basin, we attempt to dissect the dynamics of plant use in this area and investigate the relationship between local cultivated plants and biodiversity. Our results indicate the agricultural civilization in the Yangtze River Basin greatly relied on rice production, and domesticated a large amount of fruit and aquatic vegetable crops, which reflects the adaptation and dependence to local subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forests and wetlands. When compared to other basins, the Yangtze River Basin is advantageous in allocation of ecological factors, and the characteristic of domesticated crops shows a typical feature of subtropical humid forest vegetation areas. Studying the natural and human factors related to crop domestication can help us to better understand the origin of agriculture civilization in the Yangtze River Basin. This work not only provides a reference for the conservation and utilization of plant genetic resources, but also plays a guiding role in promoting the construction of ecological civilization and sustainable development in the Yangtze River Basin.

Key words: Yangtze River Basin, crop, agricultural civilization, vegetation, climate, biodiversity