生物多样性 ›› 2013, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (5): 572-581.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.10106

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都江堰亚热带森林常见木本植物果实组成与种子扩散策略

李娟1,2, 郭聪1, 肖治术2,*()   

  1. 1 四川大学生命科学学院生物资源与生态环境教育部重点实验室, 成都 610064
    2 中国科学院动物研究所农业虫害鼠害综合治理研究国家重点实验室, 北京 100101
  • 收稿日期:2013-05-02 接受日期:2013-05-24 出版日期:2013-09-20 发布日期:2013-10-08
  • 通讯作者: 肖治术
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金面上项目(31240470);中国科学院知识创新工程重要方向项目(KSCX2-EW-N-05)

Fruit composition and seed dispersal strategies of woody plants in a Dujiangyan subtropical forest, Southwest China

Juan Li1,2, Cong Guo1, Zhishu Xiao2,*()   

  1. 1 Key Laboratory of Bio-resources and Eco-environment, Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064
    2 State Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101
  • Received:2013-05-02 Accepted:2013-05-24 Online:2013-09-20 Published:2013-10-08
  • Contact: Xiao Zhishu

摘要:

为了掌握亚热带森林木本植物的果实特征与其种子扩散策略之间的关系, 我们在都江堰般若寺林场10个森林斑块共设置了240个种子雨收集器, 对常见木本植物的果实组成、果实特征、结实物候和扩散模式等进行了调查。从2009年4月至2010年12月, 共收集到成熟果实10,542颗, 分属24科36属42种。物种数和果实数在秋季(9-12月)达到高峰, 在物种数量上以壳斗科(17%)、樟科(12%)、蔷薇科(10%)占优势。种子扩散模式以食果鸟类扩散的种类最多(52.4%), 其次为啮齿动物贮藏扩散的种类(19.0%)和食果鸟兽共同扩散的种类(16.7%), 以风力扩散的种类最少(11.9%)。果实类型以核果(48%)、坚果(17%)和球果(10%)较为常见, 而果实颜色以黑色(39%)最为常见, 其次是褐色(29%)和红色(21%)。果实直径在10 mm以下的种类较多(64.3%), 且以食果鸟类扩散为主; 10 mm以上的果实多以风力和啮齿动物来扩散的种类为主。研究结果说明都江堰亚热带常绿阔叶林中, 果实高峰出现在秋季(雨季末和旱季早期), 且木本植物的果实特征适合相关动物来传播其种子, 并成为该区域的主要种子扩散模式。

关键词: 果实特征, 果期物候, 种子扩散策略, 亚热带森林, 都江堰, 环境因子, 结实物候

Abstract:

This study aimed to investigate relationships between fruit traits and seed dispersal in a subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest. Fruit composition and fruit phenology were monitored using 240 seed traps distributed over 10 separated stand patches in a fragmented forest in Dujiangyan City, Sichuan Province, Southwest China. A total of 10,542 mature fruits, belonging to 42 woody plant species of 36 genera and 24 families, were collected between April 2009 and December 2010. The peak of fruiting and fruit abundance occurred during autumn (between September and December) when there is less rainfall. Plant families with higher species richness included Fagaceae (17%), Lauraceae (12%), and Rosaceae (10%), while other families included only 1-2 fruiting species. Seed dispersal by animals was the most dominant dispersal mode (88.1% of species) while anemochory (wind dispersal) was the mode for other species. Seeds of animal-dispersed species were mainly dispersed by frugivorous birds (52.4%), followed by scatter-hoarding rodents (19.0%) and frugivorous birds and mammals combined (16.7%). Drupes (48%), nuts (17%), and cones (10%) were the most common fruit types. Species with black fruits (39%) and red fruits (21%) were most common and were dispersed by fruigivorous birds, while species with brown nuts (29%) were also common and were mainly dispersed by scatter-hoarding animals. Most fruiting species (64.3%) had relatively small fruits (<10 mm in diameter), and were mainly dispersed by birds, while those with larger fruits (>10 mm in diameter) were mainly dispersed by wind or rodents. Our study indicates that most of fruiting woody species occur during autumn (later wet season and early dry season) and fruit traits of these plants have been adapted by animal-mediated seed dispersal in the Dujiangyan subtropical forest.

Key words: fruit traits, fruiting phenology, seed dispersal, subtropical forest, Dujiangyan, environmental factor, fruit phenology