生物多样性 ›› 2013, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (5): 517-526.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.10038

• • 上一篇    下一篇

中国海草的多样性、分布及保护

郑凤英1, 邱广龙2,3, 范航清3,*(), 张伟1   

  1. 1 山东大学(威海)海洋学院, 山东威海 264209
    2 中国科学院生态环境研究中心, 城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085
    3 广西红树林研究中心, 广西红树林保护与利用重点实验室, 广西北海 536000
  • 收稿日期:2013-02-05 接受日期:2013-04-19 出版日期:2013-09-20 发布日期:2013-10-08
  • 通讯作者: 范航清
  • 基金资助:
    山东省科技攻关项目(2010GHY10507);广西自然科学基金(桂科基0832030);广西北部湾重大专项(2010GXNSFE013002);海洋公益性行业科技专项(201005012);广西红树林保护与利用重点实验室主任基金;广西“红树林和海草系统保育与生态监测”特聘专家岗位基金

Diversity, distribution and conservation of Chinese seagrass species

Fengying Zheng1, Guanglong Qiu2,3, Hangqing Fan3,*(), Wei Zhang1   

  1. 1 Marine College, Shandong University at Weihai, Weihai, Shandong 264209
    2 State Key Laboratory of Urban and Regional Ecology, Research Center for Eco-environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100085
    3 Guangxi Key Lab of Mangrove Conservation and Utilization, Guangxi Mangrove Research Centre, Beihai, Guangxi 536000
  • Received:2013-02-05 Accepted:2013-04-19 Online:2013-09-20 Published:2013-10-08
  • Contact: Fan Hangqing

摘要:

海草床是地球生物圈中最富有生产力、服务功能价值最高的生态系统之一。目前, 全球各国海草分布信息正在逐渐明晰, 而中国在全国性海草分布的汇总信息中尚属空白, 种类多样性资料也急需更新, 中国海草“家底”信息的极度匮乏大大地阻碍了国家层面上海草保护与恢复工作的开展。为此, 我们对中国海草种类、面积及退化情况进行了汇总分析。结果表明: 中国现有海草22种, 隶属于10属4科, 约占全球海草种类数的30%。原在中国海草名录中的澳洲波喜荡(Posidonia australis)为鉴定错误, 中国到目前为止并未发现该种。中国海草分布区可划分为两个大区: 南海海草分布区和黄渤海海草分布区。前者包括海南、广西、广东、香港、台湾和福建沿海, 共有海草9属15种, 以喜盐草(Halophila ovalis)分布最广; 后者包括山东、河北、天津和辽宁沿海, 分布有3属9种, 以大叶藻(Zostera marina)分布最广。中国现有海草场的总面积约为8,765.1 ha, 其中海南、广东和广西分别占64%、11%和10%, 南海区海草场在数量和面积上明显大于黄渤海区。南海区海草场主要分布于海南东部、广东湛江市、广西北海市和台湾东沙岛沿海; 黄渤海区海草场主要分布于山东荣成市和辽宁长海县沿海。广东、广西两省的海草场主要以喜盐草为优势种, 海南和台湾多以泰来藻(Thalassia hemprichii)为优势种, 山东和辽宁多以大叶藻为优势种。中国海草场退化严重, 人为干扰是导致其退化的主要原因, 突出表现为在海草床海域破坏性的挖捕和养殖活动, 以及在海草生境和周边的围填海活动。中国海草资源的调查及保护研究整体落后, 但南海区领先于黄渤海区。为促进我国海草保护的全面推进, 应全面启动我国海草种类资源和海草场分布的普查行动, 加强海草场动态监测、建立中国国家海草监测网, 加快海草自然保护区的建立步伐, 强化海草床恢复和海草种质资源保护研究工作, 并规范海草植物的中文命名。

关键词: 海草场, 海草种类, 中国海草分布区, 退化, 人为干扰

Abstract:

Seagrass beds are one of the most productive ecosystems on Earth and an important source of ecosystem services. Accurate mapping of spatial patterns of seagrass species diversity are lacking at the national scale in China, while taxonomic information on Chinese seagrass species requires an urgent update. This lack of information hinders national conservation and restoration programs for seagrass biodiversity. In this article we review studies of diversity, distributions and degradation of seagrass in China. A total of 22 seagrass species distributed along China’s coastal regions belong to ten genera and four families, and account for about 30% of known seagrass species worldwide. A check of herbarium material stored in Sun Yat-sen University showed that the seagrass species previously identified as Posidonia australis in Hainan is in fact Enhalus acoroides. From our analyses, two Chinese seagrass biotas are proposed. These include the South China Sea Bioregion (SCSBR) and China’s Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea Bioregion (CYSBSBR). The SCSBR includes Hainan, Guangxi, Guangdong, Hongkong, Taiwan and Fujian provinces, and contains 15 seagrass species representing nine genera with Halophila ovalis being most widely distributed. The CYSBSBR includes Shandong, Hebei, Tianjin and Liaonin provinces and contains nine seagrass species belonging to three genera with Zostera marina being most widely distributed. The total distribution area for China’s seagrass meadows is estimated to be 8,765.1 ha, with Hainan, Guangdong and Guangxi provinces accounting for 64%, 11% and 10% of the area, respectively. Both the number and area of seagrass meadows are much higher in the SCSBR than in the CYSBSBR. In the SCSBR, seagrass meadows are mainly located in the eastern Hainan coast, Zhanjiang in Guangdong, Beihai in Guangxi and Dongsha Island in Taiwan, whereas in the CYSBSBR they predominate in Rongcheng in Shandong and Changhai in Liaoning. Halophila ovalis, Thalassia hemprichii and Z. marina are the dominated species in seagrass meadows in Guangdong and Guangxi, Hainan and Taiwan, Shandong and Liaoning respectively. Seagrass degradation in China is mainly attributed to human disturbances caused by fishing, aquaculture and sea reclamation. For conservation purposes we advise the following: (1) initiate an extensive national survey of spatial patterns of seagrass species diversity; (2) conduct long-term monitoring of typical seagrass meadows and establish a national seagrass monitoring network; (3) accelerate legislation for seagrass conservation and include some ecologically-significant seagrass meadows as reserves; (4) invest more finance in research on the restoration of seagrass beds and conservation of seagrass germplasm resources; (5) standardize the Chinese names of seagrassesin China.

Key words: seagrass meadow, seagrass species, Chinese seagrass biotas, degradation, human disturbances