生物多样性 ›› 2013, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (1): 62-70.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.09120

• • 上一篇    下一篇

贵州织金洞洞穴动物群落多样性与光照强度及土壤重金属含量的关系

徐承香1,2, 李子忠1,*(), 黎道洪2   

  1. 1 贵州大学昆虫研究所, 贵阳 550025
    2 贵州师范大学生命科学学院, 贵阳 550001
  • 收稿日期:2012-05-25 接受日期:2012-10-25 出版日期:2013-01-20 发布日期:2013-02-04
  • 通讯作者: 李子忠
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金(31060287, 31160097)

Relationships between the diversity of animal communities and the lighting environment and content of heavy metals in soils in Guizhou Zhijin Cave

Chengxiang Xu1,2, Zizhong Li1,*(), Daohong Li2   

  1. 1 Institute of Entomology, Guizhou University, Guiyang 550025
    2 College of Life Sciences, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang 550001
  • Received:2012-05-25 Accepted:2012-10-25 Online:2013-01-20 Published:2013-02-04
  • Contact: Li Zizhong

摘要:

为了解洞穴动物群落多样性与环境的关系, 以及土壤重金属污染对洞穴动物分布和多样性的影响, 作者于2011年8月对贵州的著名旅游洞穴织金洞的动物群落多样性进行了调查。将该洞划分为5个光带, 即入洞口有光带、出洞口有光带、入洞口弱光带、出洞口弱光带和黑暗带, 共设置25个样方。采用Shannon-Wiener多样性指数对群落多样性进行了分析, 采用主成分(PCA)分析动物群落多样性与环境的关系, 用Hakanson潜在生态危害指数法测度和评价了洞内土壤重金属的潜在生态危害程度。结果显示: 共获动物标本1,080号, 隶属3门7纲26科41种(或类群); 多样性指数、丰富度指数、均匀度指数、优势度指数最高的分别是出洞口有光带(2.7996)、入洞口有光带(4.5399)、出洞口有光带(0.9196)和出洞口弱光带(0.1868), 入洞口有光带和出洞口有光带间相似性系数最高(0.6248); 群落多样性和丰富度沿有光带、弱光带、黑暗带呈递减趋势。土壤中的有机质和空气中CO2含量、洞穴湿度、温度以及土壤中的重金属污染是影响洞穴动物群落多样性的主导因子; 土壤中Cu、Zn、Ni、Cr、As均处于低度生态危害水平, 而Hg污染较为严重, 在入洞口有光带已达到重度生态危害水平(Eri=256.000); 从整个洞穴的综合潜在生态风险指数的平均值(RI=192.714)来看, 6种重金属总的潜在生态危害程度达到中度生态危害水平, 洞穴受到一定程度的重金属污染。

关键词: 动物群落多样性, 环境因子, 生态危害评价, 主成分分析, 织金洞

Abstract:

We investigated the community diversity of cave animals in different light zones of the Guizhou Zhijin Cave in August, 2011. We used principal components analysis (PCA) to examine the relationships between animal community diversity and environment factors. We assessed the potential ecological risk degree of heavy metals in the cave based on the Hakanson potential ecological risk index. We identified 1,080 specimens, which belong to three phyla, five classes, 26 families and 41 species or groups of species, which could be divided into five communities. The highest community diversity, richness index, evenness index, and dominance index were light zone of exit (2.7996), light zone of entrance (4.5399), light zone of exit (0.9196) and weak-light zone of exit (0.1868), respectively. Index of similarity between light zone of entrance and light zone of exit (0.6248) was highest. The richness and dominance indices of the communities were low, but community diversity and richness tended to decrease based on the order of the light intensity (i.e., light zone>weak-light zone>dark zone). Dominant species included Hemiphaedusa pluviatilis and H. moellendorffiana. Organic matter of soil, content of CO2 in the air, cave humidity, cave temperature, and heavy metal contamination of soil were the dominant factors to affect animal community diversity in the cave. Although Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, As in soils were at ecologically low levels, Hg pollution was relatively high in the whole cave and at especially severe level of ecological risk (Eri=256.000) in the light zone of cave entrance. As far as the average potential ecological risk level (RI=192.714) of six heavy metals were concerned, the cave was contaminated at a certain degree with heavy metals.

Key words: diversity of animal communities, environmental factors, ecological risk appraisal, principal components analysis, Zhijin Cave