生物多样性 ›› 2013, Vol. 21 ›› Issue (1): 11-18.DOI: 10.3724/SP.J.1003.2013.08107

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辽宁獐子岛马牙滩潮间带及近岸海区大型底栖动物群落特征

王全超1,2, 韩庆喜1, 李宝泉1,,A;*()   

  1. 1 中国科学院烟台海岸带研究所, 山东烟台 264003
    2 中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
  • 收稿日期:2012-04-24 接受日期:2012-06-16 出版日期:2013-01-20 发布日期:2013-02-04
  • 通讯作者: 李宝泉
  • 基金资助:
    山东省科技发展计划项目(2011GGF01003);烟台市科学技术发展计划项目(2010246)

Macrobenthic fauna in the intertidal and offshore areas of Zhangzi Island

1,2, Qingxi Han1, Baoquan Li1,*()   

  1. 1 Yantai Institute of Coastal Zone Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Yantai, Shandong 264003
    2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049
  • Received:2012-04-24 Accepted:2012-06-16 Online:2013-01-20 Published:2013-02-04
  • Contact: Li Baoquan

摘要:

为摸清辽宁獐子岛潮间带及近岸海区的大型底栖动物的分布现状和群落受扰动情况, 作者于2011年11月中旬在马牙滩潮间带和近岸海区采集大型底栖动物, 采用优势度指数、Shannon-Wiener多样性指数、Margalef丰富度指数、Pielou均匀度指数, Bray-Curtis相似性聚类分析、MDS标序和ABC曲线等方法, 分析该区域内大型底栖动物群落的生态学特点。结果表明, 在潮间带共鉴定大型底栖动物39种, 优势类群为多毛类、甲壳类和软体类; 优势种均为多毛类, 即小头虫(Capitella capitata)、多美沙蚕(Lycastopsis augenari)、仙居虫(Naineris laevigata)和短叶索沙蚕(Lumbrineris latreilli); 平均生物量为25.76 ± 41.08 g/m2, 以软体动物占优势; 平均栖息密度为315.11 ± 160.73 个/m2, 以多毛类占优势; 丰富度指数、均匀度指数与Shannon-Wiener多样性指数的平均值分别为1.17 ± 0.89, 0.74 ± 0.17和1.80 ± 1.09。近岸海区共鉴定大型底栖动物40种, 优势类群为多毛类、甲壳动物、软体动物和棘皮动物。优势种包括4种棘皮动物和1种多毛类, 即紫蛇尾(Ophiopholis mirabilis)、日本倍棘蛇尾(Amphioplus japonicus)、短叶索沙蚕、心形海胆(Echinocardium cordatum)和浅水萨氏真蛇尾(Ophiura sarsiivadicola)。近岸海区的平均生物量和平均栖息密度分别为218.86 ± 152.24 g/m2和700.00 ± 471.51 个/m2, 均以棘皮动物占优势。丰富度指数、均匀度指数与Shannon-Wiener多样性指数的平均值分别为1.40 ± 0.60, 0.64 ± 0.19和2.04 ± 0.78。聚类分析结果表明, 潮间带不同潮区间和近岸海区不同断面间群落差异显著。ABC曲线分析显示, 獐子岛潮间带底质环境受到中度扰动, 大型底栖动物群落结构处于不稳定状态; 近岸海区受到轻度干扰, 群落结构未发生明显变化。

关键词: 大型底栖动物, 群落特征, 生物多样性, 獐子岛, 黄海

Abstract:

We completed a quantitative investigation of the macrobenthic community in the intertidal zone and offshore areas of Zhangzi Island in November 2011 to identify the distribution and potential anthropogenic impacts on this aquatic community. Four biodiversity indices, Bray-Curtis similarity, MDS ordination analyses, and ABC curves were used in the present work to analyze the community structure. We identified 39 total macrobenthic species in the intertidal zone of Maya Beach, of which the most dominant groups were the Polychaeta, followed by Crustacea, and Mollusca. We found four dominant species belonging to Polychaeta, including Capitella capitata, Lycastopsis augenari, Naineris laevigata, and Lumbrineris latreilli. Average biomass of the intertidal zone was 25.76 ± 41.08 g/m2, of which Mollusca contributed most. Average density was 315.11 ± 160.73 ind./m2, of which the Polychaeta contributed most. The average value of three biodiversity indices were relatively low (Richness index 1.17 ± 0.89, Evenness index 0.74 ± 0.17 and Shannon-Wiener index 1.80 ± 1.09). We identified 40 species in the offshore areas, of which the most dominant group was Polychaeta, followed by Crustacea, Mollusca and Echinodermata. We also identified five dominant species in offshore areas, including Ophiopholis mirabilis, Amphioplus japonicus, Lumbrineris latreilli, Echinocardium cordatum, and Ophiura sarsiivadicola. The average value of biomass and density was higher in the offshore areas compared to that of intertidal zone, with 218.86 ± 152.24 g/m2 and 700.00 ± 471.51 ind./m2, respectively. The average value of Richness index was 1.40 ± 0.60, Evenness index 0.64 ± 0.19 , and Shannon-Wiener index 2.04 ± 0.78. MDS ordination analysis showed that community structure was significantly different within the intertidal zone and the offshore areas. Lastly, the macrobenthos fauna in intertidal zone were impacted by a moderate anthropogenic disturbance, whereas the fauna in offshore areas was slightly disturbed.

Key words: macrobenthos, community structure, biodiversity, Zhangzi Island, Yellow Sea